Table of Contents

Margaret Hamburg

Margaret Ann “Peggy” Hamburg, MD is an American physician and public health administrator.

She is married to Peter Fitzhugh Brown, an artificial intelligence expert, with whom she has two children.

Background

Hamburg was born July 12, 1955.1) She is the daughter of Beatrix and David Hamburg, both physicians and early role models for her career in medicine. Her mother was the first African-American woman to attend Vassar College and to earn a degree from the Yale University School of Medicine (which had previously excluded black students). Her Jewish father and grandmother “taught her to value education and family and to fight discrimination and oppression.”

Education

Hamburg earned her B.A. from Radcliffe College (prior to it becoming part of Harvard University) and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School at Harvard University, and she completed her medical residency at Weill Cornell Medical Center. She is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, and was inducted into the Institute of Medicine in 1994.

Career

Early in her career, Hamburg conducted neuroscience and neuropharmacology research at the National Institute of Mental Health under the National Institutes of Health, and at Rockefeller University.2)

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (1986-1988)

From 1986 to 1988, she served in the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the United States Department of Health and Human Services.3) She also worked as a clinical instructor for Georgetown University School of Medicine from 1986-1990.4)

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1989-1990)

From May 1989 to May 1990, Hamburg served as the Assistant Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Dr. Anthony Fauci.5) In this position, she participated in HIV/AIDS policy development and research.6)

New York City (1991-1997)

Hamburg served as Commissioner of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene from 1991-1997. Her accomplishments in that position include promoting needle-exchange programs to reduce the spread of HIV, initiating the first public health bioterrorism program in the nation, and creating a program to reduce the resurgence of tuberculosis, an effort that became a model for health departments worldwide.7)

During her term as health commissioner, she also held academic positions at Columbia University School of Public Health and Cornell University Medical College, both in New York City.8)

Department of Health and Human Services (1997-2001)

In 1993, Hamburg was President Bill Clinton's first choice for the newly-created post of federal AIDS coordinator. Pregnant with her first child at that time, Hamburg declined. In 1997, Clinton presented a second offer (which she accepted), naming Hamburg assistant secretary for planning and evaluation in the United States Department of Health and Human Services.9)

Nuclear Threat Initiative (2001-2009)

Hamburg was founding vice president and senior scientist at the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) - a foundation created by Ted Turner to reduce the threat of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons - where she worked on reforms to reduce the dangers associated with modern bioterrorism and infectious diseases such as pandemic influenza.

She left the NTI in 2009 to accept the leadership position for the Food and Drug Administration, but returned years later as chair of the NTI | bio Advisory Group and the Interim Vice President of Global Biological Policy and Programs.10)

Sidwell Friends School (2004-2009)

Hamburg is a member of the Medical Advisory Team for the Sidwell Friends School. She served on the board of trustees from 2004-2009.11)

On July 13, 2005, Hamburg was announced as an advisor to the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies by the Pew Charitable Trusts and Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.12)

Food and Drug Administration (2009-2015)

Hamburg served as commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 2009 - 2015 under President Barack Obama.13)

As FDA commissioner, she was known for advancing regulatory science, streamlining and modernizing the FDA’s regulatory pathways, globalization of the agency, and implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act to reduce the death and disease caused by tobacco.

During Hamburg's tenure at the FDA, the agency was criticized for speeding approvals at the expense of safety, while some industry voices indicated the pace was “justified.” The FDA, under Hamburg's leadership approved 51 drugs in 2014 alone, which was noted as being “most in more than 20 years” to which Hamburg attributes to “innovative approaches.”14)

National Academy of Medicine (2015-present)

In April 2015, Hamburg was appointed Foreign Secretary of the National Academy of Medicine, formerly the Institute of Medicine (IOM).15)

Hamburg participated on the Climate & Health Initiative Planning Committee, which “convened in 2020 to guide and inform the development of the strategic framework for the Grand Challenge on Climate Change, Human Health, and Equity.”16)

American Association for the Advancement of Science (2017-2019)

Hamburg served as president and chair of the board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 2017-2019.17)

Hamburg joined the board of directors for Alnylam Pharmaceuticals in 2018.18)

Return to NTI

After leaving the FDA, Hamburg returned to the Nuclear Threat Initiative.

Hamburg was a leading participant in the 2021 Monkeypox Tabletop Exercise led by the NTI.19)

Other affiliations

American Museum of Natural History

Hamburg is a member of the board of trustees for the American Museum of Natural History.20)

American Society of Microbiology

Hamburg is a member of the American Society of Microbiology.21)

amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research

Hamburg served on the board of directors for amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research.22)

Aspen Institute

Hamburg is associated with the Aspen Institute.23)

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Hamburg is a member of the Global Health Scientific Advisory Committee for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.24)

Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense

Hamburg is a commissioner on the Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense.25)

Broad Institute

Hamburg is a member of the board of directors of the Broad Institute.26)

Center for Strategic and International Studies

Hamburg is a member of the Commission on Strengthening America’s Health Security at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.27)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Hamburg formerly served on the Board of Scientific Counselors at the National Center for Infectious Diseases under the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).28)

Central Intelligence Agency

Hamburg has been a member of the Intelligence Science Board at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).29) 30) 31)

Century Foundation

Hamburg is affiliated with the Century Foundation.32)

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations

Hamburg is Chair of the Joint Coordination Group for the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI).33)

Commonwealth Fund

Hamburg was elected to the board of directors of the Commonwealth Fund in 2015.34)

Conservation International

Hamburg formerly served on the board of directors of Conservation International.35)

Council on Foreign Relations

Hamburg is a member of the board of directors for the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).36)

In 2020, Hamburg was appointed by the CFR to serve on its Independent Task Force on Improving Pandemic Preparedness.37)

COVID Collaborative

Hamburg is a member of the National Advisory Council for the COVID Collaborative.38)

Doctors of the World

Hamburg was formerly a member of the board of directors of Doctors of the World.39)

Duke-NUS Medical School

Hamburg is chair of the advisory board for the Center of Regulatory Excellence (CoRE) at Duke-NUS Medical School.40)

Ending Pandemics

Hamburg is an advisor to Ending Pandemics.41)

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Hamburg is a member of the board of directors for Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.42)

Harvard University

Hamburg is a member of the Harvard University Global Advisory Council, and a member of the board of fellows for Harvard Medical School.43) 44)

Henry Schein

Hamburg formerly served as a member of the board of directors for Henry Schein.45)

InterAcademy Partnership

Hamburg is co-chair of the InterAcademy Partnership (IAP).46)

Lasker Foundation

Hamburg was appointed to the board of directors of the Lasker Foundation in 2020.47)

Markle Foundation

Hamburg was a member of the Markle Foundation's Task Force on National Security in the Information Age.48)

MRCT Center

Hamburg is a member of the external advisory board of the MRCT Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard.49)

Nathan Cummings Foundation

Hamburg served as a member on the board of directors of the Nathan Cummings Foundation.50)

The Nature Conservancy

Hamburg is board member for the Nature Conservancy.51)

Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy

Hamburg is a board member of the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy.52)

Primary Care Development Corporation

Hamburg is affiliated with the Primary Care Development Corporation.53)

Resolve to Save Lives

Hamburg is a director of Resolve to Save Lives.54)

Rockefeller Foundation

Hamburg formerly served as a member of the board of directors of the Rockefeller Foundation.55)

Rockefeller University

In 2005, Hamburg was elected to the board of directors of Rockefeller University.56)

Simons Foundation

Hamburg is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative.57)

Trust for America's Health

Hamburg was a member of the board of directors for Trust for America's Health.58)

University of Washington

Hamburg is a member of the External Advisory Board for the Department of Global Health at the University of Washington.59)

Urban Institute

Hamburg is a member of the board of directors for the Urban Institute.60)

Wellcome Trust

Hamburg is a member of the Strategic Advisory Board on Vaccines and Drug-resistant Infections for Wellcome Trust.61)

World Dementia Council

Hamburg is a member of the board for the World Dementia Council.62)

World Economic Forum

Hamburg is associated with the World Economic Forum, including having participated as a speaker on the topic of synthetic biology.63) 64)

World Health Organization

Other Affiliations

Hamburg is also affiliated with the Century Foundation, Forward Together, and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies.66)

Pandemia

Pandemic War Games

In June 2001, Hamburg participated in the Operation Dark Winter exercise at Andrews Air Force Base simulating a bioterrorism event involving weaponized smallpox.67)

Hamburg also participated in the Clade X pandemic exercise, officially held to practice for the need to “counter a fast-moving and deadly epidemic released on purpose by a terrorist group consisting of scientists and their rich backers wanting to reduce overpopulation.”68) 69)

On October 19, 2020, Hamburg participated in the CSIS-LSHTM High-Level Panel on Vaccine Confidence and Misinformation event held jointly by the Center for Strategic & International Studies and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.70)

She went on to participate in a tabletop exercise at the 2021 Munich Security Conference modelling a fictional international outbreak of monkeypox.71) The exercise was led by the Nuclear Threat Initiative and funded by Open Philanthropy.72) In the exercise scenario, the hypothetical outbreak was set to begin on May 15, 2022. On May 18, 2022, a real confirmed case of monkeypox was reported in an American traveller who had recently travelled to Canada.73)

Further reading

1) , 3) , 8)
Dr. Margaret Hamburg. Changing the Face of Medicine. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from https://archive.ph/TwJNr
2) , 57)
Margaret A. Hamburg. (2020, January 27). SFARI. https://archive.ph/DjwT9
4) , 32)
Wallechinsky, D. (2016). Hamburg, Margaret. AllGov - Officials. https://archive.ph/5sDIi
5)
Margaret Hamburg, M.D. LinkedIn. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://www.linkedin.com/in/margaret-hamburg/details/experience/
6) , 9) , 17)
Margaret Hamburg. (2021, June 7). Broad Institute. https://archive.ph/b5SBY
7) , 34)
Mahon, M. (2015, July 31). Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., Elected to Commonwealth Fund Board of Directors. Commonwealth Fund. https://archive.ph/w0DL2
10) , 44)
Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D. | Leadership & Staff | About | NTI. (2021, October 5). Wayback Machine; Nuclear Threat Initiative. https://archive.ph/bKgdu
12)
Pew Charitable Trusts, Wilson Center Launch Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. (2005, July 13). The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. https://archive.ph/GuinQ
13)
Harris, G. (2009, March 11). Ex-New York Health Commissioner Is F.D.A. Pick. The New York Times. https://archive.ph/6pcR
14)
Tavernise, S. (2015, February 5). F.D.A. Commissioner Leaving After Six Years of Breakneck Changes. The New York Times. https://web.archive.org/web/20220529034850/https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/06/health/margaret-hamburg-fda-commissioner-stepping-down.html
15)
Walsh, J., & Dickson, C. (2015, April 6). Margaret A. Hamburg Appointed as Institute of Medicine Foreign Secretary. National Academies of Science. https://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=04062015
16)
Climate Change Planning Committee. National Academy of Medicine. Retrieved May 28, 2022, from https://archive.ph/6Q1ZZ
18)
The Alnylam® Leadership Team. Alnylam Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/PF7Ic
19)
Yassif, J., Kevin, P., O'prey, Christopher, R., & Isaac. (2021). Strengthening Global Systems to Prevent and Respond to High-Consequence Biological Threats. Nuclear Threat Initiative. https://www.nti.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/NTI_Paper_BIO-TTX_Final.pdf
20)
Board of Trustees. (2022, April 29). American Museum of Natural History. https://archive.ph/KDzUf
21)
Leppard, N. (2022, June 17). Margaret Hamburg, MD Biography. ProCon; Encyclopedia Brittanica. https://web.archive.org/web/20220617190831/https://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/source-biographies/margaret-hamburg/
22)
Leadership. (2008). amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. https://archive.ph/YbSro
23)
Purves, J., & Thomson, T. (2022, February 24). Increasing Access to Affordable, Life-Saving Medicines: Framework Released by Working Group Headed by Former FDA Commissioners. The Aspen Institute. https://archive.ph/WB0fp
24)
Scientific Advisory Committee. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/ChEAt
25)
Dr. Margaret A. Hamburg. Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense. Retrieved May 28, 2022, from https://biodefensecommission.org/teams/margaret-a-hamburg/
26)
Board of Directors. (2016, June 10). Broad Institute. https://archive.ph/ld0U8
27)
Coronavirus Crisis Update: Fmr. FDA Commissioner Dr. Margaret Hamburg on Testing and Where We Go From Here. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://web.archive.org/web/20220527150503/https://www.csis.org/podcasts/take-directed/coronavirus-crisis-update-fmr-fda-commissioner-dr-margaret-hamburg-testing
28)
Margaret A. Hamburg, MD, named FDA Commissioner. (2009, March 11). Friends of Cancer Research. https://archive.ph/EhJin
29)
Countering the Threat of Radiological Weapons. (2005, July 27). Center for American Progress. https://archive.ph/ntd56
30)
CIA Intelligence Science Board. (2016). NNDB. https://archive.ph/dXzvp
33)
CEPI Developments. GloPID-R. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/eCK3c
35) , 55)
Margaret Hamburg, MD. The Women in Medicine Legacy Foundation. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://www.wimlf.org/margaret-hamburg-md
36)
Margaret (Peggy) Hamburg. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/8BIMO
37)
Bollyky, T. J., & Patrick, S. M. (2020, October). The U.S. Must Learn From COVID-19 to Prevent the Next Disaster. Council on Foreign Relations. https://archive.ph/dVjVT
38)
About. COVID Collaborative. Retrieved June 1, 2022, from https://archive.ph/mafYB
40)
Advisory Board. Center of Regulatory Excellence (CoRE). Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/16c2D
42)
Margaret (Peggy) Hamburg. (2019, December 2). Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. https://archive.ph/NnhOh
43) , 49)
Dr. Margaret Hamburg. The Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/kVEbj
45)
Henry Schein Appoints Dr. Margaret Hamburg to Board of Directors. (2003, November 3). Henry Schein. https://archive.ph/QYuPQ
46)
World’s science academies gather in Korea to elect new chairs, welcome new members, and stand up for sustainable development. (2019, April 17). InterAcademy Patnership. https://archive.ph/u78xt
47)
Hofschneider, M. Board of Directors. Lasker Foundation. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/zb4fI
48)
Member Biographies. (2005, February 21). Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. https://archive.ph/7rfo9
50)
Hamburg, M. A. (2017, April 18). Hidden Risks: global supply chains, public health and global governance. Stanford University. https://archive.ph/pEHFz
51)
Margaret Hamburg. The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/VIzTP
52)
Parker Institute Board Member Margaret Hamburg Named President-Elect of AAAS. (2017, January 3). Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy. https://archive.ph/cuH8C
53)
Past Honorees. Primary Care Development Corporation. Retrieved May 28, 2022, from https://archive.ph/WTYmy
54)
Dr. Margaret Hamburg. (2022). Resolve to Save Lives. https://archive.ph/pmLE9
56)
Margaret Hamburg elected to Rockefeller Board of Trustees. (2005, November 2). The Rockefeller University. https://archive.ph/MmgDp
59)
Margaret Hamburg. University of Washington - Department of Global Health. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/fSAoz
60)
Urban Institute Board of Directors. (2017, June 14). Wayback Machine; Urban Institute. https://archive.ph/MevFj
61)
Vaccines and Drug-resistant Infections Strategic Advisory Board. (2020, September 30). Wayback Machine; Wellcome Trust. https://archive.ph/eomX2
62)
Council members. (2022). World Dementia Council. https://archive.ph/smpvW
63)
The Next Frontier: Synthetic Biology. (2021, April 6). World Economic Forum. https://archive.ph/xE9f1
64)
Margaret A. Hamburg. World Economic Forum. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from https://archive.ph/hd5I2
65)
WHO Expert Advisory Committee on Developing Global Standards for Governance and Oversight of Human Genome Editing: Report of the second meeting (p. 9). (2019). World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20220718184106/apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1344139/retrieve
66)
Margaret A. Hamburg. (2019). NNDB. https://www.nndb.com/people/020/000172501/
67)
Dark Winter. Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Retrieved May 28, 2022, from https://archive.ph/wzTpc
68)
Alexopulos, N. (2018, May 15). Clade X policy recommendations. Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. https://archive.ph/y2cq8
70)
Bliss, K. E., Morrison, J. S., & Larson, H. J. (2020, October 19). Call to Action: CSIS-LSHTM High-Level Panel on Vaccine Confidence and Misinformation. Center for Strategic & International Studies. https://archive.ph/6pO70
71)
Yassif, J., Kevin, P., O'prey, Christopher, R., & Isaac. (2021). Strengthening Global Systems to Prevent and Respond to High-Consequence Biological Threats. Nuclear Threat Initiative. https://web.archive.org/web/20220527194423/https://www.nti.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/NTI_Paper_BIO-TTX_Final.pdf
72)
Strengthening Global Systems to Prevent and Respond to High-Consequence Biological Threats. (2021, November 23). The Nuclear Threat Initiative. https://archive.ph/t3sph
73)
Reilly, P. (2022, May 18). First case of monkeypox confirmed in US this year in man who had traveled to Canada. New York Post. https://archive.ph/YVWsW
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