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Ralph S. Baric, PhD

Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Gillings School of Global Public Health

Faculty Profile Page at UNC

Education

B.S. Zoology, North Carolina State University, 1977
PhD, Microbiology, North Carolina State University, 1982
Postdoctoral Fellowship, Microbiology, University of Southern California, 1986

Research

Genetic Engineering

In an interview published by HuffPost, Baric stated unequivocally that genetic engineering of a virus can occur with or without leaving a trace, including a potential personal signature.1)

Coronavirus Research Timeline

2013

2015

  • Nov 9, 2015 - A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence4)
    • Baric and Zhengli-Li Shi are corresponding authors.
    • An author correction was published on May 22, 2020 in the wake of the emergence of SARS-CoV-2.5)

J Virol 2015 Sep;89(17):9119-23. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01279-15. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Yang Yang 1 , Chang Liu 1 , Lanying Du 2 , Shibo Jiang 3 , Zhengli Shi 4 , Ralph S Baric 5 , Fang Li 6

Two Mutations Were Critical for Bat-to-Human Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Abstract

To understand how Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmitted from bats to humans, we compared the virus surface spikes of MERS-CoV and a related bat coronavirus, HKU4. Although HKU4 spike cannot mediate viral entry into human cells, two mutations enabled it to do so by allowing it to be activated by human proteases. These mutations are present in MERS-CoV spike, explaining why MERS-CoV infects human cells. These mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV, either directly or through intermediate hosts.

Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.6)

2018

Peter Daszak is listed as the Principle Investigator (PI) on the EcoHealth Alliance proposal sent to DARPA seeking a grant for the PREEMPT Program (Preventing Emerging Pathogenic Threats, HR001118S0017). The proposal, titled Project Defuse: Defusing the Threat of Bat-Bore Coronaviruses sought $14,209,245. The proposal, dated March 24, 2018, was rejected by DARPA.7)

  • “We will sequence their spike proteins, reverse engineer them to conduct binding assays, and insert them into bat SARSr-CoV (WI1, SHC014) backbones…to infect humanized mice and assess capacity to cause SARS-like disease.”
  • “Our modeling team will use these data to build machine-learning genotype-phenotype models of viral evolution and spillover risk.”
  • “…three caves in Yunnan Province, China, and a series of unique global datasets on bat host-viral relationships.”
  • The first listed subcontractor is Professor Ralph Baric, referencing his “two-decade track record of reverse-engineer CoV and other virus spike proteins.”

CoV Vaccine Research

Baric helped develop the Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.8)

  • Dec 12, 2019 - Baric receives CoV vaccine candidates from Moderna. This was 19 days before official recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.9)
  • Aug 5, 2020 - SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine design enabled by prototype pathogen preparedness.10)

Drug Research

Baric Lab helped develop remdesivir, a potential antiviral drug used to treat some COVID-19 patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, but had previously never been approved to treat any condition.11) 12)

Patents

Baric holds numerous patents that related to coronavirus and gain-of-function research, some of which looks as though it might relate to SARS-CoV-2 or the omicron variant.

  • US9884895B2: Methods and compositions for chimeric coronavirus spike proteins, specifically referencing SARS CoV by name over 100 times.13)

Investigations

On April 18, 2022, US Right to Know filed a complaint with the UNC to release documents pertaining to Baric's work with the Wuhan Institute of Virology.14)

Awards, Prizes, and Shiny Trinkets

Baric received the 2021 O. Max Gardner Award which goes to a member of the University of North Carolina System faculty member “who has made a great contribution to the welfare of the human race.”15)

Research Details Removed From Faculty Profile

Research

Most of the research in our laboratory has used coronaviruses as models to study the genetics of RNA virus transcription, replication, persistence, and cross species transmission. We have also been using alphavirus vaccine vectors to develop novel candidate vaccines against caliciviruses. Specific areas of interest include:

1. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics and vaccine development.

We have developed infectious cDNAs from two coronaviruses. Specific applications include: a) studying critical cis and trans acting factors that regulate coronavirus subgenomic mRNA synthesis and replication, b) rearranging the coronavirus gene order to study genome evolution and function in coronavirus transcription and replication, c) identification of the minimal coronavirus genome, d) development of coronavirus replicon RNAs and coronavirus replicon particles for vaccine development, e) expression of heterologous genes from coronavirus vaccine vectors for swine and other important species.

2. Norwalk like virus (Calicivirus) vaccine development.

We are using the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), as a vaccine vector for the Norwalk like viruses. Our research encompasses: a) expression of Norwalk and SnowMountain virus capsid proteins from VEE, b) biochemical and immunologic characterization of these recombinant proteins, c) vaccine testing in mice, and d) use a human challenge model to identify immunologic responses associated with protection from NLV reinfection.

3. RNA virus transcription, replication and recombination.

Our laboratory has had a longstanding interest in using genetic approaches to study coronavirus transcription, replication and RNA recombination.

4. RNA virus persistence, cross species transmission and virus-host coevolution.

Our laboratory has studied the mechanism for coronavirus persistence in vitro. This occurs by virus selection for resistant host cells that down regulate the expression of the host receptor needed for coronavirus docking and entry. The emergence of these resistant host cells subsequently selects for the coevolution of virus variants that recognize new receptors for docking and entry. Virus variants evolve with expanded host range through recognition of phylogenetic homologues of the normal coronavirus receptor. Consequently, we are studying the mechanisms of RNA virus-host cell coevolution and virus receptor interactions that regulate virus host range expansion.

https://web.archive.org/web/20200306064952/https://www.med.unc.edu/microimm/directory/ralph-baric-phd-1/

Drug Development Partners

April 29, 2020 - Remdesivir, developed through a UNC-Chapel Hill partnership, proves effective against COVID-19 in NIAID human clinical trials

On Wednesday, Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID], reported that data from an international clinical trial testing the broad-spectrum antiviral drug remdesivir in around 1,090 patients showed “quite good news” and should result in a new standard of care for COVID-19 patients.

Remdesivir was developed through an academic-corporate partnership between Gilead Sciences and the Baric Lab at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. The biopharmaceutical company sought the talents of a research team led by William R. Kenan, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Epidemiology Ralph Baric, who has studied coronaviruses for more than 30 years and pioneered rapid-response approaches for the study of emerging viruses and the development of therapeutics.

“This is a game changer for the treatment of patients with COVID-19,” Baric said upon hearing the results of the clinical trial. “Remdesivir provides an effective treatment strategy for the many infected individuals around the globe.“ 16)

Controversy During the COVID-19 Pandemic

USRTK FOIA Archive

Ralph Baric emails batch #1 (12.14.20) (83,416 pages). Dr. Ralph Baric’s emails with EcoHealth Alliance, Wuhan Institute of Virology, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and experts in biodefense and infectious diseases.17)

Congressional Investigation

COVID Timeline with summary details at Peter Daszak. Full Report 18)

Foreign Affairs Subcommittee Summary

“As we continued our investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic, we uncovered even more disturbing evidence about the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) coverup and WHO Director General Tedros’s gross mishandling of the virus that allowed it to turn into a deadly pandemic,” said Lead Republican Michael McCaul. “It is crystal clear that had the CCP been transparent, and had the head of the WHO cared more about global health than appeasing the CCP, lives could have been spared and widespread economic devastation could have been mitigated. Revealing the truth is just the first step; we must hold both the CCP and WHO Director General Tedros accountable for the suffering they have allowed the world to endure.”19)

Washington Post OpEd

New congressional report says covid-19 likely emerged in Wuhan months earlier than originally thought by Josh Rogin Columnist

Nineteen months after the start of the pandemic, the Chinese government continues to actively thwart a real investigation into the origins of covid-19. Now, a new GOP congressional report alleges that Beijing was covering up the outbreak for months longer than previously assumed.

The House Foreign Affairs Committee minority staff, led by ranking Republican Michael McCaul (Tex.), released Monday an 84-page addendum to their previously issued report on the origins of covid-19. Their new research focuses on whether the Wuhan Institute of Virology, the world’s leading bat coronavirus research center, as well as other labs in Wuhan, could have been the source of the outbreak. The report also presents extensive evidence that the international community may need to revise its timeline of the outbreak.

The Lancet commission on covid-19 removed Daszak from its team focusing on the origins of the pandemic after Daszak filed an updated conflict of interest statement about his collaboration with the Wuhan labs. McCaul wants him to be subpoenaed to testify and is demanding the EcoHealth Alliance hand over its relevant records to Congress.20)

Lab Leak Coverup

In April 2021, in an editorial in the journal Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Shi resorted to a familiar tactic to contain the cloud of suspicion enveloping her: She invoked scientific consensus, just as the Lancet statement had. “The scientific community strongly dismisses these unproven and misleading speculations and generally accepts that SARS-CoV-2 has a natural origin and was selected either in an animal host before zoonotic transfer, or in humans following zoonotic transfer,” she wrote.

But Shi’s editorial had no muzzling effect. On May 14, in a statement published in Science Magazine, 18 prominent scientists called for a “transparent, objective” investigation into COVID-19’s origins, noting, “We must take hypotheses about both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data.”

Among the signers was Ralph Baric. Fifteen months earlier, he had worked behind the scenes to help Peter Daszak stage-manage the Lancet statement. The scientific consensus had been smashed to smithereens.21)

Biosafety at University of North Carolina (UNC)

Engineered COVID-19-Infected Mouse Bites Researcher Amid ‘Explosion’ of Risky Coronavirus Research

by Jonathan Latham August 17, 2020

University researchers genetically engineer a human pandemic virus. They inject the new virus into a laboratory mouse. The infected mouse then bites a researcher…..It is a plot worthy of a Hollywood blockbuster about risky coronavirus research.

But according to newly obtained minutes of the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) of the University of North Carolina (UNC), Chapel Hill, these exact events need not be imagined. They occurred for real between April 1st and May 6th this year. 22)

“There has been an explosion of research involving fully infectious SARS-CoV-2 over the last six months. Research with infectious SARS-CoV-2 now is occurring in every, or almost every, BSL-3 facility in the US and overseas.”

This strong upsurge is affirmed by Edward Hammond of Prickly Research, Austin, TX, former Director of the Sunshine Project, an NGO that tracked the post 9/11 expansion of the US Biodefense program.

“It is evident that swarms of academic researchers with little prior experience with coronaviruses have leapt into the field in recent months.”

The accident at the University of North Carolina (UNC) is now in the public domain but only thanks to a FOIA request submitted by Hammond (in line with NIH guidelines) and shared with Independent Science News.

Despite the FOIA request, apart from the fact that UNC classified it as an official “Reportable Incident”, i.e. that must be reported to National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Washington DC, scarcely any information about the accident is available.

In part this is because the minutes of the relevant IBC meeting (May 6th, 2020, p109) are extremely brief. They do not provide any details of the fate of the bitten researcher. Nor do they state, for example, whether the researcher developed an active infection, nor whether they developed symptoms, nor if they transmitted the recombinant virus to anyone else. Neither do they reveal what kind of recombinant virus was being used or the purpose of the experiment. 23)

Redactions of Biosafety Committee discussions

The second reason for this lack of information is that the UNC redacted the names of Principal Investigators (PIs) whose research required biosafety scrutiny, along with many of the experimental specifics.

Nevertheless, unredacted parts of minutes from IBC meetings held in 2020 contain descriptions of experiments that potentially encompass the accident. They include

UNC Inst Biosafety Committee Application 75223 (“a full-length infectious clone” refers to a viable DNA copy of the coronavirus, which is ordinarily an RNA virus)

UNC Inst Biosafety Committee Application 73790

UNC Inst Biosafety Committee Application 74962

In all, any one of eight sets of different experiments approved by the UNC Chapel Hill IBC in 2020 proposed infecting mice with live infectious and mutant SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses under BSL-3 conditions and therefore could have led to the accident.

The thorny issue of transparency According to Hammond the lack of transparency represented by the sparse minutes and especially the redactions represent a violation of science’s social contract.

Using FOIA again he has further discovered that researchers at the University of Pittsburgh (whose identity is redacted) plan to make what Hammond calls Corona-thrax.

In short, according to its Institutional Biosafety Committee, Pittsburgh researchers intend put the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (which allows the virus to gain entry into human cells) into Bacillus anthracis which is the causative agent of anthrax.

U Pittsburgh Inst Biosafety Committee minutes June 2020 24)

The anthrax strain proposed to be used for this experiment is “disarmed” but, Hammond agrees with Gao et al., (2020) that the balance of risks and benefits appears not to be receiving adequate consideration.

This experiment was nevertheless approved by the Institutional Biosafety Committee of the University of Pittsburgh. But by redacting the name of the laboratory from the minutes and also every name of the members of the committee which approved it, the University has supplied a de facto response to the final question posed by Gao et al.: who will take responsibility for risky coronavirus research?

Wuhan BSL Connection

Inside the risky bat-virus engineering that links America to Wuhan China emulated US techniques to construct novel coronaviruses in unsafe conditions. MIT Technology Review By Rowan Jacobsen - June 29, 2021

His 2015 paper, “A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence,” was a tour de force, utilizing bleeding-edge genetic technology to alert the civilized world to a looming danger on its periphery. It also revived concerns about gain-of-function experiments, which Baric had known it would. In the paper, he spelled out the extra precautions he’d taken and held up the research as a test case. “The potential to prepare for and mitigate future outbreaks must be weighed against the risk of creating more dangerous pathogens,” he wrote. “Scientific review panels may deem similar studies building chimeric viruses based on circulating strains too risky to pursue.”

The NIH decided the risk was worth it. In a potentially fateful decision, it funded work similar to Baric’s at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, which soon used its own reverse-genetics technology to make numerous coronavirus chimeras.

Unnoticed by most, however, was a key difference that significantly shifted the risk calculation. The Chinese work was carried out at biosafety level 2 (BSL-2), a much lower tier than Baric’s BSL-3+.25)

Did Ralph Baric of UNC Design Omicron?

“COVID Bioweapon Against Mice” Patent 11225508 March 30, 2022 by Igor Chudov This article will show that Omicron is likely an outgrowth of experiments to develop a Covid-19 variant causing serious disease in wild-type mice, and point at the person and the lab who was documented doing just that — Ralph Baric of UNC.

To give you a preview -

  • Omicron is very unlikely to be a product of natural evolution of SARS-Cov-2 in infected people.
  • While the original Sars-Cov-2 could NOT infect wild-type mice, Omicron readily does infect wild mice.
  • It would take a very long time to naturally evolve Sars-Cov-2 to infect wild, non-humanized mice, without laboratory involvement.
  • Baric’s article in Nature describes steps to genetically edit and develop a genome for such a mouse-infecting virus, derived from Wuhan Sars-Cov-2.
  • Ralph Baric’s UNC owns US patent 11,225,508, which describes how he made a lab-made Covid-19 variant that infects mice and causes serious disease in mice (making Baric’s patented invention a bioweapon by definition).
  • This patent by Baric makes UNC the only organization with a legal monopoly on his method of creating murine/human variants of Sars-Cov-2 due to patent protection
  • Baric tested that his Mouse-Adapted (MA) virus is still capable of infecting human cells
  • Baric also tested whether the new mouse-adapted variant could evade existing spike protein vaccines.
  • Any design of mouse-adapted version of Sars-Cov-2, like Omicron, could only be done with UNC’s permission due to patent protection.

Let’s explore this if you are interested in details 26)

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Curriculum Vitae

VII. CONRACTS AND GRANTS

A. Current Funding 1. National Institute of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. RO1 AI056351-06. Susceptibility and Protective Immunity to Noroviruses. 02/01/2009 - 01/31/2014. RS Baric, PI; 20% effort; Total direct cost: $2,854,241. a. Administrative Supple ment - 07/01/2009-06/30/2011 Total Direct Cost: $359,407 This application seeks to study the function of susceptibility alleles in human Norovirus infection. Using a human challenge model, we will determine if individuals initially infected with Norwalk virus develop long-term resistance that protects against subsequent challenge. We will also determine if other Noroviruses use ABH antigens as receptors for docking and entry.

2. National Institute of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. R01AI075297 SARS-CoV Pathogenic Mechanisms in Senescent Mice. 4/1/08-3/31/13. Baric, R.S. (PI); 10% effort; Total direct costs: $1,966,516 The proposal seeks to unravel the host and virological factors present in zoonotic and epidemic strains of the SARS-CoV that contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in the senescent mouse model. We will use reverse genetics to identify genetic determinants in the zoonotic S glycoprotein and replicase that contribute to increased pathogenesis and mortality in senescent mice and identify host factors which are differentially regulated in young and senescent mice that contribute to pathogenesis. The role of select pathways in disease progression will be evaluated with null animals.

3. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. RO1. HL080621- 01A1. Macaque Model and Gene Expression Profiling of SARS Michael Katze, PI (University of Washington); RS Baric Subcontract PI. 5% effort. Total direct costs: $375,000 direct costs/year. 01/01/06-12/30/10. The proposal seeks to study the pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV pathogenesis in the macaque model developed by Ab Osterhaus. Our role on the proposal is to use reverse genetics to a) reconstruct a molecular clone of strain (HKU- 39849) and compare the pathogenesis of this recombinant virus to recombinant Urbani. The proposal studies the pathogenesis of these isolates in the macaque model and performs array analysis to identify alterations in gene expression profiles during infection in airway cultures derived from macaques.

4. NIAID/NHLB, R21 AI079521-02 Targeted Gene Expression from NL63 Vaccine Vectors (Sims-PI; Baric Co-Investigator, 5% effort) Total Direct costs: $275,000. 07/01/08-06/30/11 Dr. Sims develops attenuated, coronavirus vaccine vectors that express influenza hemagglutinin antigens and that protect from lethal influenza virus challenge.

5. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. R21/R33 AI 076159-03 Human Coronaviruses as Multigene Mucosal Vaccine Vectors for HIV (Sims-PI; Baric Co-Investigator); Total Direct costs: $286,661. 04/01/08 - 03/31/13 This project will provide the first critical evaluation of the potential use of common cold human coronaviruses as live mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV.

6. Univ Wash/NIH-Subcontract, R01 HL080621 A Systems biology Approach to Emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases, PI: M. Katze(UWash) $16,954,607 (total contract); Baric SubProject: Systems Biology of Lethal and Attenuated SARS-CoV Infection (~$300,000/yr direct costs). 9/15/08 - 9/14/13. This project uses a systems genomic and proteomic approach to elucidate the host signaling networks that regulate highly pathogenic respiratory virus induced severe and end-stage lung disease.

7. SERCEB U54 AI057157-08 (Sparling, PI; Denison, Project PI; Vanderbilt; Baric, R- Co-PI) 3/1/09 – 2/28/14 Project 1.1. Platforms for the Synthesis and Testing of Emerging Zoonotic Viruses The project will use emerging group 1 Bat-CoV, coupled with synthetic genome and gene design, to define conserved determinants of host species movement, adaptation, and pathogenesis in a senescent mouse model.

8. SERCEB U54 AI057157-08 (Sparling, PI; De Silva, Project PI; Baric, R-Co-PI). Project 3.2. “Antibody in Protective and Pathogenic Immunity to Dengue Type 3” 3/1/09 – 2/28/14

9. PNWRCE U54AI080680-02 (Baric-CoPI) 4/21/09 – 2/28/14 Project 3.1 Pathogenomics of Severe Respiratory Virus Infection. PI, RS Baric. Annual total direct costs: $430,000. The project uses a systems genetic approach and novel mouse genetic resources, the collaborative cross, to map susceptibility loci regulating SARS-CoV and influenza virus pathogenesis in young mice.

B. Completed 1. Harvey Weaver Scholar, National Multiple Sclerosis Society. 7/1/84-5/1/86. Total: $44,000. Postdoctoral fellow research fellow support. PI: RS Baric

2. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases (AI 23946 years 1-3) Studies into the mechanism of MHV transcription. 7/1/86-3/31/90. $324,000 Direct costs. PI: RS Baric, 40% effort.

3. National American Heart Association Grant in Aid. Coronavirus-induced myocarditis in rabbits. July 1987-June 1990. $29,609 first year; total for three years: $94,227 (direct costs), PI: RS Baric 10% effort.

4. Career Development Award from the National American Heart Association, Established Investigator Award ”Coronavirus-Induced Rabbit Cardiomyopathy“. Established Investigator-American Heart Association. Direct costs: $175,000. 7/1/89 - 6/30/94. PI: RS Baric

5. School of Public Health, BRSG. Coronavirus-induced myocarditis in rabbits. 1986- 1987. $7,150 Direct costs. PI: RS Baric

6. School of Public Health, BRSG. Incidence of the enteric rotaviruses, adenoviruses, and coronaviruses among migrant farm workers. 1987-88. Direct costs $7,150. PI: RS Baric

7. School of Public Health, BRSG Small Instrument Program. Direct costs $7,477.80. PI: RS Baric. 1989

8. National American Heart Association Grant in Aid. ”Coronavirus-induced myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. 7/1/90 - 6/30/93. Direct costs $108,000. PI: RS Baric, 10% effort.

9. School of Public Health, BRSG. Development of PCR techniques for detection of HAV and other enteroviruses. 1989 - 1990. Direct costs $3,200. PI: RS Baric

10. School of Public Health, BRSG. Small Instrument Program. $7,200. (1987), PI: RS Baric

11. School of Public Health, BRSG. Small Instrument Program $6,200. (1988), PI: RS Baric

12. American Water Works Association. “Gene probes to analyze for waterborne microorganisms and virus”. 10/1/90 - 9/30/92. Direct costs $150,000/yr (Co-PI with Mark Sobsey ENVR).

13. National Shellfish Indicator Study. Detection of human and nonhuman fecal indicators in shellfish and environmental samples. 11/1/90 - 10/30/92. Direct costs $205,000 (Co-PI with Mark Sobsey, ENVR).

14. Environmental Protection Agency. Development of ultra-sensitive gene probes for the detection of HAV and other enteroviruses in environmental samples. Direct costs $315,000 (Co-PI with Mark Sobsey, ENVR). 6/5/91 - 6/4/93

15. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “Studies into the Mechanism of MHV Replication”. 1/1/92 - 12/31/96. Total costs: ~$895,000. PI: RS Baric, 40% effort. Years 4-8.

16. North Carolina Biotechnology Center. Studies into the mechanism for mefloquine resistance in plasmodium falciparum in vitro. 7/1/92 - 12/31/93 $40,000 direct costs. PI: RS Baric, 5% effort.

17. World Health Organization. Molecular screening strategies for antimalarial drugs. 1994-1996, $75,000 Direct Costs. PI: RS Baric, 10% effort.

18. North Carolina Biotechnology Center. “Molecular Methods to detect and control human calicivirus infections” 7/1/2000-12/21/01. $55,000 total costs. RS Baric, PI 5% effort.

19. National Institutes of Health], Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “Studies into the Mechanism of MHV Replication”. 7/1/97-6/30/02. Total costs: 1,000,000. PI: RS Baric, 40% effort. Years 9-13.

20. American Water Works Association Research Foundation. “Development of a Molecular Method to Detect Infective Viruses.” T. Cromeans and M.Sobsey, PI; RS Baric, co-investigator 5% effort. $250,000 total costs, 1/1/2000-12/31/03.

21. Environmental Protection Agency. “Research to Assess the Potential for the Use of Noninvasive Assays to Measure Infections Caused by Exposure to Viral Pathogens in Drinking and Recreational Waters.” PI: C.Moe, subproject: to RS Baric. 10/1/01-9/31/03. $400,000 total costs, 5% effort.

22. National Institute of Health, Allergy and Infectious diseases. “Reverse Genetics with a Coronavirus Infectious cDNA Construct.” 4/1/2001-3/31/005 $1.0 million total costs/yr. RS Baric, PI 25% effort. GM 63228

23. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. R01. Remodeling the SARS Coronavirus Genome Regulatory Network. RS Baric, PI 10% effort. 7/1/04-6/30/09. $2.1 million.

24. NIH Southeastern Regional Center for Excellence. Marburg virus reverse genetics and pathogenesis 12/1/04-11/30/06. $200,000 total costs. RS Baric, PI 2% effort.

25. National Institute of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases: “Studies into the Mechanism of MHV Replication”. 4/1/03-3/30/08, ~2,000,000 total costs. RS Baric, PI-30% effort. (years 14-19) AI23946, 1 year no cost extension in progress. This project focuses on identifying the important virus-receptor interactions which mediate Mouse hepatitis virus cross species transmissibility during persistence and in mixed cell cultures in vitro.

26. NIH AID Supplement 1 and 2: SARS Reverse Genetics. AI23946-14A1 $250,000 direct costs. Supplements to develop a full length cDNA of the SARS-CoV and equip a BSL3 laboratory in the School of Public Health, Room 3221D McGaveran Greenberg Hall. RS Baric, 5% effort, PI. 9/1/03-8/30/04.

27. National Institute of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Susceptibility and Protective Immunity to Noroviruses. 7/1/03-6/30/08. RS Baric, PI; 20% effort; 2.3 million total costs. RO1 AI056351-01.

28. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. SARS Reverse Genetics. AI059136-01. $1.7 million total costs, RS Baric, PI. 10% effort. 4/1/04- 3/31/09. The project develops a SARS-CoV full length infectious cDNA, the development of SARS-CoV replicon particles expressing heterologous genes, and seeks to adapt SARS-CoV to mice, producing a pathogenic mouse model for SARS-CoV infection.

29. GC11714-130654 (Engle, PI; Baric, Co-PI) NIH Univ VA-Subcontract 6/1/08 - 5/31/09. Yeast Based Assays for Chemical Screens Against SARS-CoV Targets Specific Aims: The ultimate goal of this proposal is to develop a rationale, high throughput yeast-based antiviral screen that identifies small molecule inhibitors that target novel viral genes.

30. Gillings Foundation. UNC GIL 200710.0017. “Vaccines for Global Health”. Baric, RS PI. Total Direct Costs: $528,371. 09/01/2008-08/31/2010.

31. National Institutes of Health, Allergy and Infectious Diseases. P01 AI059443-05. Developing vaccine candidates for the SARS Coronavirus. RS Baric, PI 30% effort. Total direct costs: $9,025,984; 5/1/05-1/31/11. The program project grant enlists Dr. Robert E. Johnston, Dr. Mark Heise, Dr. Nancy Davis from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Dr. Mark Denison from Vanderbilt University and Dr. Peter Palese from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine to develop vaccine candidates for the SARS-CoV using a combination of molecular genetic approaches to develop live attenuated vaccines and vaccine platforms based on alphaviruses and new castle disease virus. Vaccine efficacy is tested following SARS-CoV infection in mice and ferrets as models.

32. Gibson, C., D.Rhodes, H.Sum, R.Baric, R.Guerrant, and C.Moe. Human caliciviruses and pediatric gastroenteritis: genetic diversity of small round structured viruses in an urban Brazilian slum. ASV, Montana, 1997.

33. Baric, R.S. and Schaad, M.C. (1996). Evidence that mouse hepatitis virus subgenomic negative strands are functional templates Quebec, Canada, International Coronavirus Symposium.

34. Baric, R.S., Chen, W., Yount, B., and Fu, K. (1996). High RNA recombination and mutation rates in MHV suggest that coronaviruses may be potentially important emerging viruses. (Quebec, Canada. International Coronavirus Symposium).

35. Alexander, L.K., Keene, B., Yount, B., and Baric, R.S. (1996). Echocardiographic changes following rabbit coronavirus infection. (Quebec, Canada. International Coronavirus Symposium).

36. Chen, W. and Baric, R.S. Evolution and persistence mechanisms in mouse hepatitis virus. (1997). (Quebec, Canada. International Coronavirus Symposium).

37. Hensley, L. and R.S. Baric. 1997. Human Biliary glycoprotein functions as receptors for Interspecies transfer of mouse hepatitis virus. (Madrid, Spain; International Coronavirus Symposium).

38. Hensley, L.E. and R.S. Baric. 1997. Virus receptor interactions and cross species transfer of mouse hepatitis virus. (Madrid, Spain; International Coronavirus Symposium).

39. Chen, W. and R.S. Baric. 1997. Receptor Homologue Scanning Functions in the Maintenance of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Persistence. (Madrid, Spain; International Coronavirus Symposium).

40. Shieh, C.Y.S, R. S. Baric, and M.D. Sobsey. 1998. Detection of low levels of enteric viruses in metropolitan and airplane sewage. American Society for Microbiology.

41. Baric, R.S. 1998. Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Virus Cross species Transmission. (July 1998, NIH Bethesda–Cross Species Infectivity Meeting)

42. Shieh, Y.-S. C, S.S. Monroe, R.L. Frankhauser, G.W. Langlois, W. Burkhardt, and RS Baric. 1999. Detection of Norwalk-like viruses in shellfish implicated in illness. International Calicivirus Symposium, Atlanta Ga.

43. Shieh, Y.-S, and Baric, RS. 2000. Detection of Norwalk-like viruses in shellfish. American Society for Virology, Colorado, USA.

44. Baric, RS, Harrington, P., Tseng, F., and Moe, C. 2000. Production of Norwalk like viruses from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon RNAs. American Society for Virology, Colorado, USA.

45. Baric, RS, Curtis, K. and Yount, B. 2000. Development of Coronavirus Infectious cDNAs. International Nidovirus Symposium, New York, USA.

46. Baric, RS and Yount, B. 2000. Subgenomic negative strand function during MHV infection. International Nidovirus Symposium, New York, USA.

47. Baric, RS and Yount, B. 2000. Mechanisms of MHV Persistence. International Nidovirus Symposium, New York, USA.

48. Harrington, P., Moe, C. and Baric, RS. 2001. Mucosal, systemic and cross immunity against Norwalk like viruses. American Society for Virology, Madison, Wis.

49. Baric, RS and Yount, B. 2001. Coronavirus Heterologous Expression Vectors. American Society for Virology, Madison, Wis.

50. Lindesmith, L., Baric, RS and Moe, CL. 2001. Evidence of a protective immune response against Norwalk like viruses. American Society for Virology, Madison, Wis.

51. Curtis, C., Yount, B. and Baric, RS. 2001. Heterologous gene expression from transmissible gastroenteritis virus replicon particles. International Symposium on Positive Strand RNA Viruses, Paris, Fr.

52. Baric, RS, Curtis, K. and Yount, B. 2001. Coronavirus heterologous gene expression vectors. International Symposium on Positive Strand RNA viruses. Paris, Fr.

53. Harrington, P., Moe, C. and Baric, RS. 2001. Systemic, mucosal and heterotypic protection against Norwalk like viruses using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons. International symposium on positive strand RNA viruses. Paris, Fr.

54. Harrington, P and Baric, RS. NLV Vaccines. Southeastern Virology Meetings, Atlanta GA, April, 2002.

55. Mcroy, W and Baric, RS. Mechanisms of MHV Cross species Transmission. Southeastern Virology Meeting, Atlanta GA, 2002.

56. McRoy, W and Baric, RS. Molecular Mechanisms of MHV Cross Species Transmission, American Society for Virology, Lexington, Ky. July, 2002.

57. Curtis, K, Yount, B and Baric, RS. Development of TGEV Replicon Particles. American Society for Virology, Lexington, Ky. July 2002.

58. Executive decision to stop listing abstracts, but on average we are providing abstracts at a rate of 4-8/yr

IX. SERVICE

A. Professional Development/Invited Presentations Selected Invited Presentations:

1. Studies into the Mechanism of MHV Transcription. N.C. State University, November 19,1987.

2. Studies into the mechanism for MHV transcription, May 1988, Virology Triangle Meeting.

3. Rabbit cardiomyopathy. Glaxo, Research Triangle Park, December 13, 1988.

4. AIDS, SPH Alumni Conference, April 1988.

5. AIDS, AHEC Fayetteville, NC, March 1989.

6. Modern approaches for health risk assessment, SPH Alumni Conference, May 2-3, 1990.

7. Studies into the Mechanisms of MHV Transcription and RNA Recombination. Loyola University, Department of Microbiology, Chicago, Illinois, February 6, 1991.

8. Genetics of MHV transcription. University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Philadelphia, Pa. October 1992.

9. Transcription and Recombination Mechanisms of Mouse Hepatitis Virus, Uniformed Services, Department of Microbiology, Bethesda, MD, November 1993.

10.Convener and presentor: Coronavirus RNA transcription and Recombination, International Coronavirus Symposium, Quebec, Canada 1994.

11. Invited Speaker: International Symposium on Positive Strand RNA Viruses. Genetics of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Transcription. The Netherlands, May 26 - June 1, 1995. Audience of 600+

12. Evolutionary Mechanisms of virus persistence and interspecies spread. Univ. Colorado Health Sciences Center, Dept. of Microbiology, Denver, Co. Feb. 1996.

13. Evolutionary Mechanisms of Mouse Hepatitis virus Persistence and interspecies spread. Research Triangle Park, Triangle Virology, NC, April 1996.

14. Molecular Mechanisms of Virus Persistence and Interspecies Traffic. Vanderbilt University, Department of Microbiology, Nashville, Tn. Jan 7, 1997.

15. Invited Speaker: Molecular and Evolutionary mechanisms of virus cross species transmission. Meeting on the Pathogenesis and Cross species Transmission of Viruses. National Institutes of Health. July 1997. Audience of 400+. Part of USDA hearings on the Public Health Concerns of Xenotransplantation and virus cross species transmission. (Bethesda, Md)

16. Molecular Mechanisms of Virus Cross Species Transmission. North Carolina State University, Department of Microbiology, Oct. 1998

17. Coronavirus reverse genetics. Baylor School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Houston Tx. April, 2001

18. Coronavirus reverse genetics. Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tn. April, 2001

19. Invited Speaker: Consequences of gene order rearrangements on coronavirus replication. International Symposium on Positive Strand RNA Viruses. Paris, France. May 27-June 2, 2001. 500 in attendance.

20. Coronavirus vaccine vectors. Department of Microbiology, North Carolina State University, Sept. 2001

21. Coronavirus reverse genetics. Department of Microbiology, East Carolina University, Oct. 2001

22. Combination vaccines against swine nidoviruses. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Univ. of Minn., Dec. 2001

23. Coronavirus Heterologous gene expression vectors. Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Dec. 2001.

24. Coronavirus Heterologous Gene Expression Vectors. Department of Pathobiology, Microbiology and Immunology, Univ. of Texas, Austin. Mar 2002.

25. Invited speaker, Seventh Southeastern Regional Virology Conference, Georgia State University, Atlanta Ga. April 12-14, 2002. ~150 participants

26. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. Baylor University, Houston Texas. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. April 9, 2001.

27. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. University of Tennessee, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nashville, TN. April 24, 2001.

28. Invited speaker: International Symposium on RNA Positive Strand Viruses, Paris France. May 27th-June 2nd 2001.

29. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. East Carolina University, Department of Microbiology, Oct 3, 2001.

30. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. University of Iowa, Department of Microbiology, Nov, 2001.

31. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. University of Minn. Dec, Department of Path biology, School of Veterinary Medicine. 2002.

32. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. University of Texas at College Station, Department of Pathology, March 2002.

33. Reverse Genetics using Coronavirus Infectious cDNAs. University of Texas at Galveston, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oct 2002.

34. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. University of Minn, Department of Path biology, School of Veterinary Medicine. December 2002.

35. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. University of Texas at College Station, Department of Pathology, March 2002.

36. Reverse Genetics using Coronavirus Infectious cDNAs. University of Texas at Galveston, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oct 2002.

37. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. Layola University School of Medicine, March 2003.

38. Invited Speaker: Engineering the Genomes of Microorganisms. DARPA Meeting on “Synthetic Biology”, Menlo Park, California. March 2003.

39. Invited Speaker: Coronavirus Vaccines. NIAID. SARS: Developing a Research Response, May 30, 2003.

40. Invited Speaker: Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections. International Glycovirology Meeting, Sweden. June 2003.

41. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics. Mount Siani School of Medicine, New York. Sept 9, 2003.

42. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center. Sept. 2003. SARS Reverse Genetics.

43. Focus Technology: Expert Consultant: Norovirus Pathogenesis and SARS-CoV Pathogenesis, Sept. 2003.

44. World Health Organization: SARS: Oct 29-Nov1, 2003. Geneva Switzerland. Invited Speaker.

45. SARS CoV Pathogenesis and Reverse Genetics. Jan 6-11th, 2004. Keystone Colorado. Invited speaker: Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases: antimicrobials, therapeutics and immune modulators.

46. SARS CoV Reverse Genetics. Emory University, Jan 15th, 2004.

47. Cruising with Noroviruses. Southeastern Viroogy Conference, Atlanta Ga. March 26th- 28th, 2004. Keynote Address.

48. SARS-CoV Genome Organization and Replication. American Society for Virology. Invited Speaker, May 24-27th, 2004. New Orleans

49. Cruising with Noroviruses. International RNA Positive Strand RNA Virus Meeting. May 27-30th, 2004. Invited Speaker. San Francisco, Calif.

50. SARS-CoV Reverse Genetics, Beijing, China. July 2004.

51. Invited Seminar Speaker, Sept 29, 2004. University of Virginia. Title: TBA.

52. SARS-CoV Genetics and Pathogenesis, Madrid Spain, Oct 2004.

53. SARS Pathogenesis, Regional Center for Excellence, Durham, NC (Invited speaker). Nov 2004.

54. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis. The US-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program 40th Anniversary Meeting Kyoto, Japan December 7-10, 2004 (Invited speaker)

55. SARS-CoV Replication and Genetics. Department of Microbiology, University of Utah, Mar, 2005.

56. Coronavirus Reverse Genetics and Pathogenesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. April, 2005. (Invited speaker)

57. Synthetic Coronaviruses. Biohacking: Biological Warfare Enabling Technologies, June 2005. Washington, DC. DARPA/MITRE sponsored event. Invited Speaker

58. SARS-CoV Genetics and Pathogenesis. American Society for Virology, College Park, Penn State University. June 2005. “State of the Art Lecturer”

59. SARS-CoV Genetics and Vaccine Development. International Nidovirales Conference, Colorado, June 2005. Invited keynote speaker.

60. Coronavirus Cross Species Transmission Mechanisms. NIH Workshop, Sept 2005. Emergence of new epidemic viruses through host switching. (Invited Speaker).

61. Human Coronavirus Pathogenesis and Genetics. Charles Gould Easton Seminar series, Department of Immunology, University of Toronto. Sept. 2005. (Invited Speaker)

62. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis. Department of Microbiology, UCLA. Sept 2005. (Invited speaker).

63. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis and Replication, University of Pittsburg, 2006.

64. American Society for Virology, Keynote Speaker, July 2006.

65. Synthetic Genomics. March 27-28. Washington, DC. 2006

66. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis. University of Washington, March 7, 2006.

67. Genetics of SARS-CoV Pathogenesis. Vanderbilt University. May 9, 2006.

68. Biosafety and SARS-CoV. American Society for Microbiology, National Meeting Orlando Florida. May 22, 2006.

69. Synthetic biology Workshop. Synthetic Reconstruction of Viral Genomes. June 1, 2006; Washington DC.

70. Plenury Address, American Society for Virology. Madison Wisconsin, July 2006. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis

71. Synthetic Virology. NSAAB Meeting, Washington DC, July 2006

72. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis, University of Kentucky, Sept. 2006.

73. Genetics of SARS-CoV Pathogenesis. SARS Workshop, Paris, Fr. Oct, 2007

74. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis, North Carolina State University, Feb, 2007.

75. Norovirus Pathogenesis, UNC Chapel Hill, Friday Morning ID Seminar, March 2007

76. SARS-CoV Innate Immunity, University of Florida, April, 2007.

77. Norovirus Pathogenesis, Layola University, Chicago, May 2007.

78. Norovirus Vaccine Design, NIH Food and Waterborne Disease Network Vaccine Development Meeting. Baltimore, Md. May 2007.

79. Synthetic Virology, American Society for Mircobiology, Toronto, Ca. May 2007.

80. Rewiring Coronavirus Genomes, Positive Strand RNA Virus Meeting, Washington, DC, May 2007.

81. Genetics of SARS-CoV Pathogenesis and Norovirus Evolution and Pathogenic Mechanisms, University of Madrid, Spain. June 2007.

82. Norovirus Pathogenesis and Vaccine Design. Atlanta GA. SERCEB Planning Meeting. June 2007.

83. Genetics of SARS-CoV Pathogenesis, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 2007

84. SARS-CoV Pathogenesis, Vaccine Design and Therapeutics, NIH Advisory Meeting and Planning Committee, Oct 1-2, 2007.

85. Norovirus Evolution and Persistence in Human Populations, Invited Speaker, International Calicivirus Meeting, Cancun Mexico, Nov 2007.

86. SARS-CoV Antagonism of Host Innate Immunity, University of Penn, Department of Microbiology, April 2008.

87. Norovirus Evolution and Persistence, Invited Speaker, American Society for Microbiology, Boston, MA June 2008

88. Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cross Species Transmission. American Society for Virology, medical virology working group, July 2008.

89. Baric R.S., Sheahan T, Deming D, Donaldson E, Yount B, Sims AC, Roberts RS, Frieman M, Rockx B. 2006. SARS coronavirus vaccine development. Adv Exp Med Biol. 581:553-60. PMID: 17037597

90. Roberts RS, Yount BL, Sims AC, Baker S, and Baric RS. 2006. Renilla luciferase as a reporter to assess SARS-CoV mRNA transcription regulation and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV agents. Adv Exp Med Biol. 581:597-600. PMID: 17037604

91. Synthetic Virology and Biodefense, American Society for Microbiology and Biodefense Meeting, Baltimore Feb 2009. Invited speaker.

92. SARS Pathogenesis Seminar-University of Arkansas-April 2010

93. Synthetic Genomics National RCE meeting. Las Vegas, NV. Invited Speaker. April 2010.

94. Systems Virology Meeting. Madison, WI Invited Speaker. May 2010.

95. Positive Strand Meeting. Atlanta, GA. Invited Speaker. May 2010.

96. System Biology and Immune Response. Veyrier du Lac France. Invited Speaker. June 2010.

97. American Society for Virology. Bozeman Montana. Session Host, 14 presentations. July 2010.

98. NIAID Workshop on Dengue Virus Infection & Immunity. Portland, OR. Invited Speaker. August 2010.

99. PNWRCE Meeting. Invited Speaker. September 2010.

100.SERCEB Meeting. Presenter. October 2010.

101.International Calici Virus Meeting. Santiago, Chile. Keynote address. October 2010.

102.University of Texas, Austin, TX Invited Seminar. October 2010.

103.St. Louis, MO. Invited Seminar November 2010

104.Systems Virology Meeting. Boston, MA. Invited Speaker. November 2010.

105.University of TX. Galveston. Invited Seminar. November 2010.

106.Arterivirus Meeting. Chicago, IL Keynote Speaker. December 2010

107.University of Iowa. Invited Seminar. December 2010.

X. UNC Patent/Invention Reports

A. US. Patent No. 6,593,111. 2003. Ralph S. Baric, Boyd Yount. Directional Assembly of Large Viral Genomes and Chromosomes. B. US Patent No. 7,279,327, 2007. Ralph S. Baric, Boyd Yount, Kristopher Curtis. Methods for Producing Recombinant Coronavirus C. Patent Pending. Ralph S. Baric, Kristopher Curtis, Rhonda Roberts, Boyd Yount. Methods and Compositions for Infectious cDNA of SARS Coronavirus.

XI. Grant Review

A. Grant Review-pre1998 1. USDA, Molecular Biology/Gene Animal Structure, 1988-2002 2. NIH AID Ad Hoc reviewer 1992 (1 proposal) 3. Veterans Administration 1992, 1996 (1 proposal each) 4. NIH Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Special ad hoc committee. July 1997 5. Programme de Recherche Fondamentale en Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses et Parasitaires French Government 1998 (1 proposal).

A2. Grant Review 1999

1. NIH MBRS Score: primary reviewer 7 grant applications from University of Puerto Rico MBRS-SCORE PROGRAM, Decide which proposals are submitted to NIH for review 2. Ad hoc reviewer United States Department of Agriculture-Animal Health and well-being 3. Ad hoc reviewer, National Institutes of Health, Experimental Virology Study Section, 1 grant, conference call

A3. Grant Review 2000-2001

1. National Institutes of Health, Genetics Study Section, Feb 2000. Ad hoc 2. National Institutes of Health, Genetics Study Section June 2000. Ad hoc National Institutes of Health, AIDS Vaccines Study Section, Sept. 2000. Conference call 3. National Institutes of Health, Genetics Study Section, Feb 2001. Ad hoc National Institutes of Health, 3. Genetics Study Section June 2001. Ad hoc. 4. Veterans Administration, Virology (March, 2001). Ad hoc. 5. Experimental Virology Study Section. Ad hoc reviewer with 6 grants to review. Oct 15- 17, 2001.

A4. Grant Review 2002

1. National Institutes of Health, Genetics Study Section, Feb 2002. Ad hoc 2. AD hoc reviewer, The Welcome Trust. March, 2002 A5. Grant Review 2003 1. Genetics study section Feb and Oct, 2003. Ad hoc. 2. Experimental Virology, February, 2003. Ad hoc 3. NIH ad hoc review, Poxvirus vaccine program project. Sept 2003.

A6. Grant Review 2004

1. National Institutes of health, Experimental Virology Study Section, Feb 2004. Ad hoc member 2. National Institutes of health, Experimental Virology Study Section, Oct 2004. Ad hoc reviewer 3. National Institutes of health, Experimental Virology Study Section, Mar, 2005. Ad hoc reviewer

A7. Grant Review, 2005-09

1. Permanent Member, Virology B Study Section, Oct 2005-2009. Three Meetings/year in Oct, Feb and June. Average 6-9 grants to review per session.

XII. Other Professional Development

1. NIH MBRS External Review Committee (1999-2010) National Institutes of Health, MBRS SCORE Proposal for the University of Puerto Rico at San Juan. Visit yearly and review the UPR MRBS SCORE NIH PROGRAM PROJECT GRANT (a compilation of 17 NIH grants to a minority institution), recommended and reviewed new grants for submission to NIH as part of MBRS SCORE (5 projects), reviewed individual PI progress (5 funded applications), reviewed UPR research infrastructure and made recommendations to the Chancellor and Dean of the Medical School for enhancing basic and clinical research on campus.

2. Task force on Veterinary Virology-American Society for Virology 3. Veterinary Virology Finance Committee-American Society for Virology 4. Manuscript Review/Editorial Boards: a. Editorial Board, Journal of Virology 2004-2006. b. Editorial board, Journal of Virology, 2007-2010. c. Associate Editor, Plos Pathogen 2007-. d. Senior Editor, Plos Pathogens 2008- 5. University and Department Committees: a. UNC-School of Public Health Shop Committee, 1987-89 b. Departmental (Parasitology and Lab Practice) Curriculum Committee, 1987- 1990 c. Co-Chair, Parasitology Depar tmental Space Committee, 1987, 1988 d. Infectious Disease Program Task Force, 1988 e. UNC-School of Public Health Safety Committee, 1988-1989 f. Epidemiology Doctoral Program Committee, 1990-95 g. Infectious Disease Program Committee, 1990-present h. Epidemiology Laboratory Committee, 1991-present, Chair i. University Recombinant DNA Committee (1996-2001) j. Space Committee (School of Public Health) 1998-2009

XIII. Student and Postdoc Training

A. Current Students-Dissertation Advisor 1. Allison Totura 2. Meagan Bolles 3. Kari Debbink B. Current Postdoctoral Fellows 1. Dr. Lisa Gralinski, 2008- present 2. Dr. Rachael Graham, 2007- present 3. Dr. Sudhakar Agnihothram, 2009- present 4. Dr. William Messer, 2008-present 5. Dr. Alexandra Schaefer, 2010-present 6. Dr. Vineet Menachery, 2010-present

C. Staff Supported by Baric Laboratory 1. Boyd Yount-1990-present 2. Lisa Lindesmith 1999-present 3. Lisa Phelps 2005-present 4. Jeremy Huynh 2009-present 5. Trevor Scobey 2009-present D. Dissertation Committee Member 1. John Meschke (ENVR) 2. Fu-Chih Hsu (ENVR) 3. Jin Haw Chou, (EPID) 4. Julie Smith (ENVR) 5. Rebecca Cleveland (EPID) 6. Nicole Gregoricus (ENVR) 7. Amy Pickard (Epid), graduated Spring 2004 8. Jennifer Konnapka (Micro), graduated Spring 2007 9. Cindy Ma (Epid), graduated Spring 2007 10. Jason Simons (M&I) graduated Spring 2010 11. Catherine Cruz (M& I) graduated Spring 2010

E. Former Postdocs

1. Sheila Peel, Senior Researcher, Walter Reed Medical Institute 2. Lorraine Alexander, Research Assistant Professor, Dept. of Epidemiology, UNC Chapel Hill 3. Carol Shieh, Research Scientist, Food and Drug Administration 4. Kirk Prutzman, Food and Drug Administration 5. Damon Deming, Food and Drug Administration, 6. Matthew Friedman, Assistant Professor, Univ. of Maryland 7. Barry Rockx, University of Texas, Galveston 8. Amy Sims, Research Assistant Professor, UNC 9. Dr. Eric Donaldson, Research Assistant Professor, UNC F. Former Doctoral Students 1. Kristopher Curtis, graduate Fall 2003, Senior Scientist, INDEXX. 2. Patrick Harrington, graduated Fall 2003, FDA 3. Will McRoy (Micro) graduated fall 2006, Assistant Professor 4. Damon Deming (Micro), graduated Spring 2007 5. Lisa Hensley, (Epid) spring 1999, Senior Scientist USAMRIID 6. Mary Schaad (Epid), 1994 Senior Scientist Ambion 7. Kaisong Fu (Epid), 1995 Senior Scientist, RTP, 8. Sheila Peel (Epid), 1995 Research Scientist, Walter Reed Medical Center 9. Anna LoBue (Micro) PhD 2008 10. Eric Donaldson (Micro) PhD 2008 11. Timothy Sheehan (Micro) PhD 2008 27)

Ralph Baric Patents Filed

2006

Publication number: 20060240530 Abstract: The present invention provides a cDNA of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, recombinant SARS coronavirus vectors, and SARS coronavirus replicon particles. Also provided are methods of making the compositions of this invention and methods of using the compositions as immunogens and/or vaccines and/or to express heterologous nucleic acids. Type: Application Filed: January 19, 2006 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Rhonda Roberts, Boyd Yount, Kristopher Curtis

2014

Methods and compositions for dengue virus vaccines Patent number: 10053493 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Grant Filed: June 26, 2014 Date of Patent: August 21, 2018 Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Inventors: William Messer, Ralph Baric, Aravinda de Silva, Boyd Yount

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR CORONAVIRUS DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPEUTICS Publication number: 20160238601 Abstract: The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting a coronavirus in a sample and identifying the subgroup of the coronavirus in the sample. Type: Application Filed: October 14, 2014 Publication date: August 18, 2016 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Boyd Yount

2015

Methods and compositions for recombinant dengue viruses for vaccine and diagnostic development Patent number: 10398768 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Grant Filed: November 2, 2015 Date of Patent: September 3, 2019 Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Inventors: Ralph Baric, Douglas Widman, Boyd Yount, Emily Gallichotte, Scott Royal, Aravinda Desilva, Jesica Swanstrom

Methods and compositions for chimeric coronavirus spike proteins Patent number: 9884895 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods comprising a chimeric coronavirus spike protein. Type: Grant Filed: March 20, 2015 Date of Patent: February 6, 2018 Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Inventors: Ralph Baric, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Boyd Yount

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR RECOMBINANT DENGUE VIRUSES FOR VACCINE AND DIAGNOSTIC DEVELOPMENT Publication number: 20170333548 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Application Filed: November 2, 2015 Publication date: November 23, 2017 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Douglas Widman, Boyd Yount, Emily Gallichotte, Scott Royal, Aravinda Desilva, Jesica Swanstrom

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR CHIMERIC CORONAVIRUS SPIKE PROTEINS Publication number: 20170096455 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods comprising a chimeric coronavirus spike protein. Type: Application Filed: March 20, 2015 Publication date: April 6, 2017 Applicant: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Inventors: Ralph Baric, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Boyd Yount

Methods and compositions for recombinant dengue viruses for vaccine and diagnostic development Patent number: 10398768 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Grant Filed: November 2, 2015 Date of Patent: September 3, 2019 Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Inventors: Ralph Baric, Douglas Widman, Boyd Yount, Emily Gallichotte, Scott Royal, Aravinda Desilva, Jesica Swanstrom

2018

Methods and compositions for dengue virus vaccines Patent number: 10870682 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Grant Filed: August 20, 2018 Date of Patent: December 22, 2020 Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Inventors: William Messer, Ralph Baric, Aravinda de Silva, Boyd Yount

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR DENGUE VIRUS SEROTYPE 4 EPITOPES Publication number: 20200155663 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce a dengue virus E glycoprotein epitope from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Application Filed: May 23, 2018 Publication date: May 21, 2020 Inventors: Ralph BARIC, Matthew BEGLEY, Douglas WIDMAN, Aravinda DESILVA, Usha NIVARTHI, Boyd YOUNT, Ellen YOUNG

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR DENGUE VIRUS VACCINES Publication number: 20190225654 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Application Filed: August 20, 2018 Publication date: July 25, 2019 Inventors: William Messer, Ralph Baric, Aravinda de Silva, Boyd Yount

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR ZIKA VIRUS VACCINES Publication number: 20190023745 Abstract: The present invention methods and compositions for treating a Zika virus infection in a subject, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of an antibody against Zika virus and/or an epitope that induces an immune response to Zika virus. Type: Application Filed: July 19, 2018 Publication date: January 24, 2019 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Jessica A. Plante, Jesica Swanstrom, Matthew Begley

2019

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR RECOMBINANT DENGUE VIRUSES FOR VACCINE AND DIAGNOSTIC DEVELOPMENT Publication number: 20200230224 Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone, which comprises amino acid substitutions that introduce an epitope that is recognized by an antibody from a dengue virus serotype that is different from the dengue virus serotype of the dengue virus E glycoprotein backbone. Type: Application Filed: August 29, 2019 Publication date: July 23, 2020 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Douglas Widman, Boyd Yount, Emily Gallichotte, Scott Royal, Aravinda Desilva, Jesica Swanstrom 28)

4)
November 9, 2015 | Vineet Menachery et al | Nature Medicine | A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence | DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3985
5)
May 22, 2020 | Vineet Menachery et al | Nature Medicine | Author Correction: A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence | DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0924-2
8) , 12)
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August 5, 2020 | Corbett et al | Nature | doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2622-0
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February 6, 2018 | patent for Methods and compositions for chimeric coronavirus spike proteins| Patent US9884895B2
14)
April 18, 2022 | US Right to Know | chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://usrtk.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/USRTK-v-University-of-North-Carolina-complaint.pdf
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