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Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 is a disease first associated with some people infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and later associated with some recipients of the COVID-19 vaccines.

COVID-19 Cases

A COVID-19 case has often been confused with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, viral infection has not historically implied disease. This has created substantial confusion, and made statistics harder to gather and evaluate.

Symptoms of COVID-19

COVID-19 is primarily associated with acute respiratory syndrome, gastrointestinal, and vascular problems. However, SARS-CoV-2 can cause problems in nearly every organ.1) Inflammation and organ failure lead to much of the most severe damage in COVID-19 patients.

Blood/Vascular System

The physical phenotypes of blood cells (erythrocytes, lymptocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) are altered in COVID-19, with some effects remaining after hospital release.2)

Some research points toward SARS-CoV-2 endothelial entry via integrin pathways, eliciting vascular leakage events.3)


On September 3, 2021, the CDC published a study purporting to show that COVID-19 is associated with a 16-fold higher risk of myocarditis.4)

Gastrointestinal System

Sometimes COVID-19 results in complications in the gastrointestinal system. These can include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, but also bile duct casts and cholangitis in some cases.5)

The bile tract plays a role in interleukin-8 cytokin storming.

PACS/Long Haul COVID-19

Post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 syndrome (PACS), also known as “long haul COVID”, plagues a significant fraction (around one-third) of those who develop COVID-19 suffer long-term health consequences after recover from the acute form of the disease.6) Long haul symptoms can last for many months.7)

The most common sequelae of those suffering long haul COVID symptoms include fatigue, post-external malaise, brain fog, select sensorimotor symptoms, headaches and related symptoms, memory issues, insomnia, and muscle aches.8) In some cases, long haul COVID has been associated with reactivation of neurotrophic pathogens such as herpesvirus.9)

Pediatric Specific Illness

A small number of affected children suffer from pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome that is temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS).10)

Predictive Risk

Immunoglobulin (Ig) singnature has been associated with long haul COVID, as well as age, asthma bronchiale, and some symptoms during primary infection.11)

Treatment of Long Haul COVID-19

  • February 10, 2022 - Targeting the Monocytic-Endothelial-Platelet Axis with Maraviroc and Pravastatin as a Therapeutic Option to Treat Long COVID/ Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID (PASC)12)

Asymptomatic COVID-19

We usually do not talk about an asymptomatic disease state in medicine, though it is debatably more plausible that COVID-19 is associated with increased health problems not detectable by early outward symptoms.

Theories of Disease

COVID-19 is a complex disease that potentially affects different systems all over the body.

Immune Health Dependence

A summary of risk factors can be summarized as, “COVID-19 affects people in proportion to the weaknesses in their immune system,” whether generally correlated with age or with other comorbidities such as nutrient deficiencies or diseases of the immune system including diabetes.13)

Nutrient Deficiency

Research associates COVID-19 cases and severity with deficiencies in numerous vitamins and minerals. Colleen Huber, NMD declares COVID-19 to be a “lack of nutrients, exploited by a virus,” but is somewhat vague on the mechanistic details. 14) Each of these may or may not relate to other system aspects of disease covered in this article.

Major COVID-19 Correlates and Comorbidities

COVID-19 and Age

The COVID-19 age curve is steep, with the elderly effected most and the young effected the least.15) The more severe the case of COVID, the steeper is the age curve.

Seealso : Risk Stratification

COVID-19 and Autoimmune Health

Autoimmune disorders and immunodeficiency might be described as the “primary COVID-19 correlate and comorbidity”, but is strangely underdiscussed by public health officials and the mainstream media.

COVID-19 and Blood Type

There is conflicting discussion of a correlation between COVID-19 and blood type, but evidence of a link may have thinned over time.

COVID-19 and BMI

COVID-19 and Diabetes

COVID-19 and Mental Illness/Learning Disabilities

Published research shows that when mental illness and learning disabilities are considered comorbidities, they are the most common among those who die from COVID-19 in hospitals.16) This has driven speculation that hospitals targeted the mentally ill for termination.17)

COVID-19 and Race

  • Shimizu et al (Dec 2, 2021): Identification of TCR repertoires in functionally competent cytotoxic T cells cross-reactive to SARS-CoV-2.
  • * Gene associated with less severe COVID more common in Asia.
  • * The Washington Free Beacon, Nov 29, 2021: Discussing this research is racist.

COVID-19 and Vitamin/Mineral Deficiencies

COVID-19 and Vitamin A Deficiency

Tepasse et al, 2021 showed significant association between Vitamin A and many endpoints of disease progression such as hospitalization, ARDS, and mortality.18)

COVID-19 and Vitamin D Deficiency

Other Risk Research

COVID-19 has been observed in some research to increase odds ratios of mortality the most with those suffering from diabetes (6.426), renal failure (4.338), and hypertension (3.261). 19)

Prion Disease

There is some evidence that prion-like domains in the spike protein enable higher affinity for ACE2 receptor binding.

SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interactions with amyloidogenic proteins: Potential clues to neurodegeneration:

Unusual Aspects of COVID-19


Researchers note that depressed COVID-19 patients respond far better than expected to SSRI antidepressants.20)

Major Topics Surrounding COVID-19

March 15, 2022 | preprint | Danielle Nader and Steve Karrigan | Vascular dysregulation following SARS-CoV-2 infection involves integrin signaling through a VE-Cadherin mediated pathway | doi:
April 19, 2021 | David Sanders et al | Cureus (journal) | COVID-19-Induced Bile Duct Casts and Cholangitis: A Case Report | doi: 10.7759/cureus.14560
6) , 11)
January 25, 2022 | Carlo Cervia et al | Nature Communications | Immunoglobulin signature predicts risk of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome |
7) , 8) , 9)
June 23, 2021 | Amy D. Proal and Michael B. VanElzakker | Frontiers in Microbiology | Long COVID or Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC): An Overview of Biological Factors That May Contribute to Persistent Symptoms |
February 10, 2022 | Bruce Patterson et al | Targeting the Monocytic-Endothelial-Platelet Axis with Maraviroc and Pravastatin as a Therapeutic Option to Treat Long COVID/ Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID (PASC) | DOI: 10.21203/
November 18, 2021 | Eric Levinson | Naturally Connected Life | What The Research Says About Diet and COVID (Plus Practical Nutrition Guide)
September 7, 2020 | Colleen Huber, NMD | | COVID-19 is a lack of nutrients, exploited by a virus
Ledford, H. (2021). Deaths from COVID ‘incredibly rare’ among children. Nature, 595(7869), 639.
April 29, 2022 | Beaney et al | Nature Communications | Trends and associated factors for Covid-19 hospitalisation and fatality risk in 2.3 million adults in England |
Tepasse, P. R., Vollenberg, R., Fobker, M., Kabar, I., Schmidt, H., Meier, J. A., Nowacki, T., & Hüsing-Kabar, A. (2021). Vitamin A Plasma Levels in COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Multicenter Study and Hypothesis. Nutrients, 13(7), 2173.
covid-19.txt · Last modified: 2022/05/16 11:14 by mathew