Spike Protein

What is a spike protein. Function of spike protein. Spike in other coronaviruses. Discuss past implications of spike in pathologies.

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

Mention ACE2 affinity relative to SARS spike protein. Specific characteristics including those which point to a lab origin. Specific and detail ACE2 binding information.

Explain spike protein as a target for antibodies and value in vaccine manufacturing.

Proposed Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Pathology

Detail effects of ACE2 down-regulation and subsequent impact on RAAS. Detail role of Angiotensin 2 in inflammation, clotting, angiogenesis, etc.

AGE/RAGE connection with Ang 2 pathology.

“In addition to eliciting an immune response that suppresses the viral entry, the spike protein produced by the COVID-19 vaccines may also affect the host cells, possibly triggering adverse events.1)

Spike Protein SARS-CoV-2

A Possible Role for Anti-idiotype Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination William J. Murphy, Ph.D., and Dan L. Longo, M.D.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcibr2113694

2009 Activation of the SARS coronavirus spike protein

Abstract The coronavirus spike protein (S) plays a key role in the early steps of viral infection, with the S1 domain responsible for receptor binding and the S2 domain mediating membrane fusion.

In some cases, the S protein is proteolytically cleaved at the S1–S2 boundary. In the case of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), it has been shown that virus entry requires the endosomal protease cathepsin L; however, it was also found that infection of SARS-CoV could be strongly induced by trypsin treatment.

Overall, in terms of how cleavage might activate membrane fusion, proteolytic processing of the SARS-CoV S protein remains unclear. Here, we identify a proteolytic cleavage site within the SARS-CoV S2 domain (S2′, R797). Mutation of R797 specifically inhibited trypsin-dependent fusion in both cell–cell fusion and pseudovirion entry assays.

We also introduced a furin cleavage site at both the S2′ cleavage site within S2 793-KPTKR-797 (S2′), as well as at the junction of S1 and S2. Introduction of a furin cleavage site at the S2′ position allowed trypsin-independent cell–cell fusion, which was strongly increased by the presence of a second furin cleavage site at the S1–S2 position.

Taken together, these data suggest a novel priming mechanism for a viral fusion protein, with a critical proteolytic cleavage event on the SARS-CoV S protein at position 797 (S2′), acting in concert with the S1–S2 cleavage site to mediate membrane fusion and virus infectivity. 2)

SARS-CoV-2 ferritin nanoparticle vaccine

A SARS-CoV-2 ferritin nanoparticle vaccine elicits protective immune responses in nonhuman primates 3)

Science Translational Medicine

16 Dec 2021 • First Release • DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abi5735

Self-assembling protein nanoparticle vaccines offer the advantage of multivalent antigen presentation, a property previously shown to augment immunogenicity over monovalent immunogens (5–7). Ferritin is a naturally occurring, ubiquitous, iron-carrying protein that self-oligomerizes into a 24-unit spherical particle (8). The three-fold axis symmetry of the resulting polymer makes it conducive to conjugation and antigen display of trimeric glycoproteins, such as SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Ferritin has been evaluated as a vaccine platform for several pathogens (9–11), most notably influenza, for which it has demonstrated immune potency and breadth (12, 13). As such, ferritin vaccines have advanced to phase 1 clinical trials as a strategy to target multiple influenza strains (14, 15).

The prefusion-stabilized form of the spike protein is the basis for most major SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates (16, 17). Although a correlate of protection from COVID-19 has not been conclusively defined, there is mounting evidence that neutralizing, and some fraction of non-neutralizing, antibodies against spike protein are necessary, if not sufficient, to confer protective immunity (18, 19).

The most potent neutralizing antibodies are directed against the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates attachment to the primary host cell receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2). Our prior assessment of a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine candidate, co-formulated with a liposomal adjuvant, has demonstrated potent immunogenicity and protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in mouse models (20).

These data have provided a basis for evaluating SpFN immunogenicity and efficacy against viral replication and pathology in the airways and lungs of nonhuman primates (NHP), a standard model for preclinical evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (21).

=== Authors Info & Affiliations === 4)

M. Gordon Joyce* https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6808-7232 kayvon.modjarrad.civ@mail.mil Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Hannah A. D. King https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7575-198X Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Visualization, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Ines Elakhal-Naouar https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6811-6534 Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Diagnostics and Countermeasures Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Aslaa Ahmed https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3093-4982 Viral Diseases Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Validation, and Visualization. View all articles by this author

Kristina K. Peachman https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8568-1439 Diagnostics and Countermeasures Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Camila Macedo Cincotta https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1495-1133 Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Diagnostics and Countermeasures Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Investigation, Project administration, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Caroline Subra https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5272-0972 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - original draft. View all articles by this author

Rita E. Chen https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5100-7750 Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Paul V. Thomas Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Resources, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Wei-Hung Chen Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Rajeshwer S. Sankhala Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Agnes Hajduczki Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Resources and Visualization. View all articles by this author

Elizabeth J. Martinez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7755-7056 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Visualization, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Caroline E. Peterson https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6087-7301 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Investigation, Resources, and Visualization. View all articles by this author

William C. Chang https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4967-6426 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Investigation, Resources, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Misook Choe https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0243-5203 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Role: Investigation. View all articles by this author

Clayton Smith Center for Molecular Microscopy, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Resources, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Parker J. Lee https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9601-8165 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Formal analysis and Investigation. View all articles by this author

Jarrett A. Headley https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5809-5485 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Funding acquisition and Project administration. View all articles by this author

Mekdi G. Taddese Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Funding acquisition, Project administration, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Hanne A. Elyard Bioqual, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Roles: Methodology, Resources, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Anthony Cook Bioqual, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Roles: Investigation, Methodology, and Resources. View all articles by this author

Alexander Anderson https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0000-7734 U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA. Roles: Resources and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Kathryn McGuckin Wuertz https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2658-6284 U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Data curation, Investigation, Validation, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Ming Dong Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Data curation, Investigation, and Resources. View all articles by this author

Isabella Swafford https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8638-2772 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Role: Investigation. View all articles by this author

James Brett Case https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7331-5511 Department of Medicine, Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Roles: Investigation and Validation. View all articles by this author

Jeffrey R. Currier https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5696-0268 Viral Diseases Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, and Resources. View all articles by this author

Kerri G. Lal Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Formal analysis and Investigation. View all articles by this author

Sebastian Molnar https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0171-8001 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Manoj S. Nair https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5994-3957 Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. Roles: Investigation, Methodology, Resources, and Validation View all articles by this author

Vincent Dussupt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-6356 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Investigation, Methodology, and Resources. View all articles by this author

Sharon P. Daye Center for Infectious Diseases Research, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Investigation, and Methodology. View all articles by this author

Xiankun Zeng https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3526-8755 Division of Pathology, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Role: Investigation View all articles by this author

Erica K. Barkei https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1120-7894 Veterinary Pathology Department, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - original draft. View all articles by this author

Hilary M. Staples Department of Virology and Immunology, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA. Role: Investigation. View all articles by this author

Kendra Alfson https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6031-5360 Department of Virology and Immunology, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA. Role: Investigation. View all articles by this author

Ricardo Carrion https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7046-7683 Department of Virology and Immunology, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA. Roles: Methodology, Project administration, Resources, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Shelly J. Krebs https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1136-1760 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Dominic Paquin-Proulx https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1407-3414 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Investigation and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Nicos Karasavva https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7372-4294 Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Diagnostics and Countermeasures Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Validation, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Victoria R. Polonis U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Data curation, Investigation, Project administration, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Linda L. Jagodzinski https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3142-8643 Diagnostics and Countermeasures Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Mihret F. Amare https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2696-6116 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Project administration, and Resources. View all articles by this author

Sandhya Vasan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6378-6288 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Paul T. Scott https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2348-4541 Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Yaoxing Huang https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6270-1644 Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. Roles: Investigation, Methodology, and Validation. View all articles by this author

David D. Ho https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1627-149X Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. Roles: Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Natalia de Val https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1506-2023 Center for Molecular Microscopy, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Michael S. Diamond https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8791-3165 Department of Medicine, Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Mark G. Lewis https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7852-0135 Bioqual, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Mangala Rao https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9553-4969 U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, and Validation. View all articles by this author

Gary R. Matyas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2074-2373 U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Investigation, Resources, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Gregory D. Gromowski https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4576-4277 Viral Diseases Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Sheila A. Peel Diagnostics and Countermeasures Branch, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, and Visualization. View all articles by this author

Nelson L. Michael https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5882-5548 Center for Infectious Diseases Research, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Diane L. Bolton https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1897-499X Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. U.S. Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Kayvon Modjarrad - kayvon.modjarrad.civ@mail.mil Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Roles: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, and Writing - review & editing. View all articles by this author

Funding Information - U.S. Department of Defense Notes - Corresponding author. Email: kayvon.modjarrad.civ@mail.mil (K.M.); gjoyce@eidresearch.org (M.G.J.) 5)

Spike protein clotting

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.12.464152v1

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Impairs Endothelial Function via Downregulation of ACE 2: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318902

The S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood-brain barrier in mice: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33328624/

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein alters barrier function in 2D static and 3D microfluidic in-vitro models of the human blood-brain barrier: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33053430/

The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein disrupts human cardiac pericytes function through CD147-receptor-mediated signalling: a potential non-infective mechanism of COVID-19 microvascular disease: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.21.423721v2.full.pdf

Clearing up misinformation about the spike protein and COVID vaccines: https://joomi.substack.com/p/coming-soon

1)
Suzuki, Y. J., & Gychka, S. G. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Elicits Cell Signaling in Human Host Cells: Implications for Possible Consequences of COVID-19 Vaccines. Vaccines, 9(1), 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010036
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