COVID-19 Vaccines by Mechanism

Currently, there are three main types of COVID-19 vaccines that are authorized and recommended or undergoing large-scale (Phase 3) clinical trials in the United States.

Below is a description of how each type of vaccine prompts our bodies to recognize and protect us from the virus that causes COVID-19. None of these vaccines can give you COVID-19.

Genetic Vaccines

Genetic vaccines, including mRNA vaccines, contain material from the virus that causes COVID-19 that gives our cells instructions for how to make a harmless protein that is unique to the virus. After our cells make copies of the protein, they destroy the genetic material from the vaccine. Our bodies recognize that the protein should not be there and build T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight the virus that causes COVID-19 if we are infected in the future.

Research has found that mRNA can be detected in blood at least 15 days after dose application.1)

Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2

Protein Subunit Vaccines

Protein subunit vaccine include pieces (proteins) of the virus that causes COVID-19 instead of the entire germ. Once vaccinated, our bodies recognize that the protein should not be there and build T-lymphocytes and antibodies that will remember how to fight the virus that causes COVID-19 if we are infected in the future.

  • Novavax NVX-Cov2373 (with clinical trial names TAK-019 and SARS-CoV-2 rS with Matrix-M1 adjuvant) with marketing names Covovax™ and Nuvaxovid™

Vector Vaccines

Vector vaccines contain a modified version of a different virus than the one that causes COVID-19. Inside the shell of the modified virus, there is material from the virus that causes COVID-19. This is called a “viral vector.” Once the viral vector is inside our cells, the genetic material gives cells instructions to make a protein that is unique to the virus that causes COVID-19. Using these instructions, our cells make copies of the protein. This prompts our bodies to build T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that virus if we are infected in the future.

Inactivated virus Vaccines

Inactivated virus vaccines use a killed, typically with chemicals, heat or radiation, version of the virus that cause a disease. This is a proven technology used for previous vaccines.

Live Attenuated Virus Vaccines

Live attenuated virus vaccines use an weakened, typically with chemicals, heat or radiation, version of the virus that cause a disease. This is a proven technology used for previous vaccines.

Inhalted Vaccines

Research is going on into vaccines that can be delivered by inhalation.2)

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List of COVID-19 Vaccines in Use or Development

mRNA Vaccines

  • Moderna mRNA-1273 with marketing name Spikevax®
  • Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 with marketing names Comirnaty® and the non-proprietary name Tozinameran
  • The possibility of the mRNA vaccines permanently altering the DNA of recipients has been frequently denied and debunked. However, this document (thanks to Researcher Stophe) pulls together a lot of papers that appear to point to this as a very real possibility. Given that Google are tightening up their policy on what can and cannot be stored on Google Drive, here is the original PDF.

https://twitter.com/finn_dan/status/1442176283157225475?s=20

DNA Vaccines

Inactivated Virus Vaccines

Live Attenuated Vaccine

Ferritin Nanoparticle Vaccines

1)
June 28, 2022 | Tudor Emanuel Fertig et al | Biomedicines (journal) | Vaccine mRNA Can Be Detected in Blood at 15 Days Post-Vaccination | doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10071538
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