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world_health_organization [2022/04/21 13:10]
pamela
world_health_organization [2022/08/18 03:58] (current)
liam
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 ====== World Health Organization ====== ====== World Health Organization ======
  
-{{ :world-health-organization-vector-logo.png?200|}}+{{ ::whologo.png?200|}} 
 + 
 +The **World Health Organization (WHO)** is a supra-national organization based in [[switzerland:Geneva]], [[Switzerland]]. It is a specialized agency of the [[United Nations]] focused on international [[public health]].
  
 ===== History ===== ===== History =====
  
-Canada joined the WHO on August 29, 1946.((//ARCHIVED - World Health Organization.// (2005, April 8). Government of Canada. https://archive.is/nwz4S))+==== Formation and early days ==== 
 + 
 +[[Canada]] joined the WHO on August 29, 1946.((//ARCHIVED - World Health Organization.// (2005, April 8). Government of Canada. https://archive.is/nwz4S)) 
 + 
 +==== Public Health Emergencies of International Concern ==== 
 + 
 +On May 5, 2014, Director-General [[Margaret Chan]] declared the international spread of [[polio]] a [[Public Health Emergency of International Concern]] (PHEIC). The PHEIC declaration has remained in effect as of the most recent emergency committee meeting in June 2022.((//Public Health Emergency status.// Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Retrieved July 29, 2022, from https://web.archive.org/web/20220729220527/https://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-now/public-health-emergency-status/)) ((Poliovirus IHR Emergency Committee. (2022, June 24). //Statement of the Thirty-second Polio IHR Emergency Committee.// World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20220729220956/https://www.who.int/news/item/24-06-2022-statement-of-the-thirty-second-polio-ihr-emergency-committee)) 
 + 
 +===== Affiliations ===== 
 + 
 +==== Funding ==== 
 + 
 +The WHO is funded by national governments ("member states") and external donors including non-governmental organizations, corporations, individuals and philanthropic organizations.((//Our contributors.// World Health Organization. Retrieved July 21, 2022, from https://archive.ph/2NK2q)) Voluntary contributions are the primary source of funding for the WHO, along with an annual "assessed contribution" calculated based on the GDP of each member state. 
 + 
 +Additionally, the [[WHO Foundation]] was set up as a legally distinct entity to raise funds for the WHO. 
 + 
 +=== COVID-19 === 
 + 
 +  * [[ACT-Accelerator]] 
 +    * [[COVAX]] 
 +  * [[COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund]] 
 +  * [[Solidarity Trial]] 
 +  * [[UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force]] 
 + 
 +=== 2020-2021 === 
 + 
 +The [[COVID-19 pandemic]] was ongoing for the entirety of this fiscal year. 
 + 
 +^  2020-2021 Fiscal Year((//Our contributors.// World Health Organization. Retrieved July 21, 2022, from https://archive.ph/2NK2q))  ^^ 
 +^ Name  ^ Amount (USD)  ^ 
 +| [[Germany]]  | $1,268,000,000 
 +| [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]  | $751,000,000 
 +| [[United States of America]]  | $693,000,000 
 +| [[United Kingdom]]  | $487,000,000 
 +| [[European Commission]]  | $466,000,000 
 +| [[Gavi|Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance]]  | $432,000,000 
 +| [[Japan]]  | $218,000,000 
 +| [[Canada]]  | $212,000,000 
 +| [[Rotary International]]  | $174,000,000 
 +| [[COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund]]  | $171,000,000 
 +| [[China]]  | $168,000,000 
 +| [[Norway]]  | $165,000,000 
 +| [[Saudi Arabia]]  | $158,000,000 
 +| [[United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund]] (CERF)  | $152,000,000 
 +| [[France]]  | $141,000,000 
 +| [[World Bank]]  | $132,000,000 
 +| [[United Nations Development Programme]] (UNDP)  | $103,000,000 
 +| [[Australia]]  | $98,000,000 
 +| [[Sweden]]  | $96,000,000 
 +| [[Netherlands]]  | $93,000,000 
 + 
 +===== Needs to be organized ===== 
 + 
 +Everything below this line needs to be reorganized. FIXME
  
 +==== Link Dump ====
  
 +  * 2017 funding: https://canucklaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/WHO.Contributions2017Listings.pdf
 +  * 2018 funding: https://canucklaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/WHO.Contributions.Statement.2018.pdf
 ==== NGO Influence ==== ==== NGO Influence ====
 Paula Jardine described how the World Health Organisation’s original aim to tackle the multiple causes of health inequality and disease – poor sanitation, lack of clean water, poor food supply, malnutrition – was replaced by one overriding goal, that of universal vaccination. Today she tells how two ‘philanthropic’ foundations joined forces to promote this approach through a global programme that would ‘reverse the fortunes of the stagnant vaccine manufacturers’ and how countries came to be persuaded to indiscriminately target 90 per cent coverage rates for all vaccines on their national immunisation schedules. Paula Jardine described how the World Health Organisation’s original aim to tackle the multiple causes of health inequality and disease – poor sanitation, lack of clean water, poor food supply, malnutrition – was replaced by one overriding goal, that of universal vaccination. Today she tells how two ‘philanthropic’ foundations joined forces to promote this approach through a global programme that would ‘reverse the fortunes of the stagnant vaccine manufacturers’ and how countries came to be persuaded to indiscriminately target 90 per cent coverage rates for all vaccines on their national immunisation schedules.
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 There is a better way. We are creating it together, for a healthy, inclusive, and harmonious world. #StopTheTreaty ((https://worldcouncilforhealth.org/news/2022/03/pandemic-treaty/45591/)) There is a better way. We are creating it together, for a healthy, inclusive, and harmonious world. #StopTheTreaty ((https://worldcouncilforhealth.org/news/2022/03/pandemic-treaty/45591/))
 +
 +==== WHO Digital Passport Agreement ====
 +
 +February 23, 2022 ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220418212026/https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/covid-19-who-commissions-t-systems-648634))
 +{{ ::who_t_mobile_partner_logo.png?400|}}
 +Checking Covid 19 certificates: World Health Organization selects T-Systems as industry partner
 +      * WHO facilitates 194 member states to introduce digital vaccination certificates
 +  *     Solution enables countries to check electronic evidence
 +  *     Gateway complies with European General Data Protection Regulation
 +
 +The World Health Organization (WHO) will make it easier for its member states to introduce digital vaccination certificates in the future. The WHO is setting up a gateway for this purpose. It enables QR codes on electronic vaccination certificates to be checked across national borders. It is intended to serve as a standard procedure for other vaccinations such as polio or yellow fever after COVID-19. The WHO has selected T-Systems as an industry partner to develop the vaccination validation services.
 +
 +Garrett Mehl, Unit Head, WHO Department of Digital Health and Innovation, said; "COVID-19 affects everyone. Countries will therefore only emerge from the pandemic together. Vaccination certificates that are tamper-proof and digitally verifiable build trust. WHO is therefore supporting member states in building national and regional trust networks and verification technology. The WHO's gateway service also serves as a bridge between regional systems. It can also be used as part of future vaccination campaigns and home-based records."
 +
 +Adel Al-Saleh, Member of the [[:Deutsche Telekom AG]] Board of Management and CEO T-Systems, explained: "Corona has a grip on the world. Digitization keeps the world running. Digital vaccination certificates like the EU's are key to this. We are pleased to be able to support the WHO in the fight against the pandemic. Health is a strategic growth area for T-Systems. Winning this contract underscores our commitment to the industry."
 +Data Transparency and General Data Protection Regulation
 +
 +WHO and T-Systems are focusing on transparency and data protection when building the gateway. The ongoing work on the software is public on the developer platform Github. All program codes can be viewed by the expert community there. Furthermore, the gateway complies to the strict privacy law of the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulation.
 +
 +The gateway will interact with other parts of the system already developed by WHO. These are also open source and with appropriate copyright licenses. A common security audit with penetration tests is part of the development. This will also give hints for regional and national setups to be followed by the implementers.
 +T-Systems industry partner in the pandemic
 +
 +For T-Systems, the WHO contract is familiar territory. The company had already developed the EU gateway for [[:vaccination certificates]] (DCC, [[:Digital Covid Certificate]]). More than 60 countries are connected to it today.
 +
 +T-Systems had previously set up the [[:European Federation Gateway Service]] (EFGS). The service ensures that member states' corona tracing apps work across borders. 
 +
 +Telekom and [[:SAP]] worked closely together on both EU projects. The companies are also industry partners for the German government's Corona warning app. With more than 43 million downloads, the German app is one of the most successful tracing apps in the world. With many additional functions, such as event check-ins or universal certificate storage, it has earned the reputation of being the Swiss army knife in the pandemic.((https://web.archive.org/web/20220418212026/https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/covid-19-who-commissions-t-systems-648634))
 +
 +About Deutsche Telekom: Deutsche Telekom company profile
 +About T-Systems: T-Systems company profile 
 +About Telekom Healthcare Solutions: Company Profile
 +World Health Organization: Email: smartvaccination@who.int
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