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world_health_organization [2022/04/12 20:14]
pamela [WHO Agreement - AUSTRALIA’S NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR HEALTH SECURITY 2019-2023]
world_health_organization [2022/08/25 23:38] (current)
liam
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 ====== World Health Organization ====== ====== World Health Organization ======
  
-{{ :world-health-organization-vector-logo.png?200|}}+{{ ::whologo.png?200|}} 
 + 
 +The **World Health Organization (WHO)** is a supra-national organization based in [[switzerland:Geneva]], [[Switzerland]]. It is a specialized agency of the [[United Nations]] focused on international [[public health]].
  
 ===== History ===== ===== History =====
  
-Canada joined the WHO on August 29, 1946.((//ARCHIVED - World Health Organization.// (2005, April 8). Government of Canada. https://archive.is/nwz4S))+==== Formation and early days ==== 
 + 
 +[[Canada]] joined the WHO on August 29, 1946.((//ARCHIVED - World Health Organization.// (2005, April 8). Government of Canada. https://archive.is/nwz4S)) 
 + 
 +==== Public Health Emergencies of International Concern ==== 
 + 
 +On May 5, 2014, Director-General [[Margaret Chan]] declared the international spread of [[polio]] a [[Public Health Emergency of International Concern]] (PHEIC). The PHEIC declaration has remained in effect as of the most recent emergency committee meeting in June 2022.((//Public Health Emergency status.// Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Retrieved July 29, 2022, from https://web.archive.org/web/20220729220527/https://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-now/public-health-emergency-status/)) ((Poliovirus IHR Emergency Committee. (2022, June 24). //Statement of the Thirty-second Polio IHR Emergency Committee.// World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20220729220956/https://www.who.int/news/item/24-06-2022-statement-of-the-thirty-second-polio-ihr-emergency-committee)) 
 + 
 +===== Affiliations ===== 
 + 
 +==== Funding ==== 
 + 
 +The WHO is funded by national governments ("member states") and external donors including non-governmental organizations, corporations, individuals and philanthropic organizations.((//Our contributors.// World Health Organization. Retrieved July 21, 2022, from https://archive.ph/2NK2q)) Voluntary contributions are the primary source of funding for the WHO, along with an annual "assessed contribution" calculated based on the GDP of each member state. 
 + 
 +Additionally, the [[WHO Foundation]] was set up as a legally distinct entity to raise funds for the WHO. 
 + 
 +=== COVID-19 === 
 + 
 +  * [[ACT-Accelerator]] 
 +    * [[COVAX]] 
 +  * [[COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund]] 
 +  * [[Solidarity Trial]] 
 +  * [[UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force]] 
 + 
 +==== Donors ==== 
 + 
 +Organizations that have funded the WHO in the last several years include:((//Voluntary contributions by fund and by contributor, 2021.// (2022). World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20220516042059/https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA75/A75_INF5-en.pdf)) ((//Our contributors.// World Health Organization. Retrieved July 21, 2022, from https://archive.ph/2NK2q)) ((//Voluntary contributions by fund and by contributor, 2020.// (2021). World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/359079/A74_INF4-en.pdf)) ((//Voluntary contributions by fund and by contributor, 2019.// (2020, June 9). World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/339657/A73_INF3-eng.pdf)) ((//Voluntary contributions by fund and by contributor, 2018.// (2019, May 9). World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20220613194959/https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/329246/A72_INF5-en.pdf)) ((//Voluntary contributions by fund and by contributor, 2017.// (2018, April 19). Wayback Machine; World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20200605174758/https://www.who.int/about/finances-accountability/funding/A71_INF2-en.pdf)) 
 + 
 +<WRAP column col4> 
 + 
 +  * [[Adimmune]] 
 +  * [[Africa Re Foundation]] 
 +  * [[African Development Bank Group]] 
 +  * [[African Field Epidemiology Network]] (AFENET) 
 +  * [[African Union - United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur]] (UNAMID) 
 +  * [[Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development]] (ACTED) 
 +  * [[Al Jazeera Media Network]] 
 +  * [[Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research]] (AHPSR) 
 +  * [[Alwaleed Philanthropies]] 
 +  * [[Amazon Web Services]] 
 +  * [[American Psychological Association]] (APA) 
 +  * [[American Speech-Language-Hearing Association]] (ASHA) 
 +  * [[Americans for UNFPA]] 
 +  * [[amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research]] 
 +  * [[ANESVAD Foundation]] 
 +  * [[AO Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Apple]] 
 +  * [[Applied Information Sciences]] 
 +  * [[Arab Gulf Programme for United Nations Development Organizations]] (AGFUND) 
 +  * [[Asia-Europe Foundation]] (ASEF) 
 +  * [[Asian Development Bank]] 
 +  * [[Asian Liver Center]] at [[Stanford University]] 
 +  * [[Association for Reproductive and Family Health]] (ARFH) 
 +  * [[Austism Speaks]] 
 +  * [[Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations]] (AFAO) 
 +  * [[Australian Red Cross Blood Service]] (ARCBS) 
 +  * [[Australian Respiratory Council]] 
 +  * [[Bank of America Fondation Madagascar]] 
 +  * [[Barcelona Institute for Global Health]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Baxter]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Bayer]] 
 +  * [[BBC Global News]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Beijing Tiantan Biological Products]] (TIANTANBIO) 
 +  * [[medical_technology_companies:BD]] 
 +  * [[Bernard van Leer Foundation]] 
 +  * [[The Big Heart Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Bloomberg Philanthropies]] 
 +  * [[Borrow Dental Milk Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Boston Consulting Group]] 
 +  * [[Bridges to Development]] 
 +  * [[Brien Holden Vision Institute]] (BHVI) 
 +  * [[Brighton Collaboration Foundation]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Bristol-Myers Squibb]] 
 +  * [[Carter Center]] 
 +  * [[Catholic Relief Services]] 
 +  * [[CBM]] 
 +  * [[CDC Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Central European Initiative]] 
 +  * [[Centre for Ageing Better]] 
 +  * [[Chemo Ibérica]] 
 +  * [[Chiba University]] 
 +  * [[Children's Investment Fund Foundation]] 
 +  * [[China Medical Board]] 
 +  * [[China Population Welfare Foundation]] (CPWF) 
 +  * [[Christian Medical College Vellore]] (CMC) 
 +  * [[Cipla Health]] 
 +  * [[Clarke Mosquito]] 
 +  * [[Clean Air Fund]] 
 +  * [[Clinton Health Access Initiative]] 
 +  * [[Conba Group Co.]] 
 +  * [[Covanta]] 
 +  * [[COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund]] 
 +  * [[Crown Agents]] 
 +  * [[David and Lucile Packard Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Deb Worldwide Healthcare]] 
 +  * [[Delft University of Technology]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Denka Seiken Co.]] 
 +  * [[medical_technology_companies:DiaSorin]] 
 +  * [[Diversey]] 
 +  * [[Doris Duke Charitable Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative]] (DNDi) 
 +  * [[Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia]] (ERIA) 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Eisai]] 
 +  * [[Eleanor Crook Foundation]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Eli Lilly]] 
 +  * [[Elizabeth Taylor Aids Foundation]] (ETAF) 
 +  * [[Elrha]] 
 +  * [[Emergency Architecture & Human Rights]] (EAHR) 
 +  * [[Emirates Red Crescent]] 
 +  * [[End Fund]] 
 +  * [[Environmental Systems Research Institute]] (ESRI) 
 +  * [[European Commission]] 
 +  * [[European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership]] 
 +  * [[European Health Management Association]] (EHMA) 
 +  * [[European Hearing Instrument Manufacturers Association]] (EHIMA) 
 +  * [[European Investment Bank]] 
 +  * [[European Respiratory Society]] (ERS) 
 +  * [[European Society for Medical Oncology]] 
 +  * [[Expanded Special Project for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases]] (ESPEN) 
 +  * [[Facebook]] 
 +  * [[Famine Relief Fund]] 
 +  * [[FHI 360]] 
 +  * [[FIA Foundation]] 
 +  * [[FIFA]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Fluart Innovative Vaccines]] 
 +  * [[Fondation Botnar]] 
 +  * [[Fondation d'Harcourt]] 
 +  * [[Fondation des Immeubles pour les Organisations Interrnationales]] (FIPOI) 
 +  * [[Fondation Mérieux]] 
 +  * [[Food and Agriculture Organization]] (FAO) 
 +  * [[Ford Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics]] (FIND) 
 +  * [[Fred Hollows Foundation]] 
 +  * [[French National Cancer Institute]] 
 +  * [[Gates Ventures]] 
 +  * [[Gavi|Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Gedeon Richter]] 
 +  * [[Gharda Chemicals]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Gilead Sciences]] 
 +  * [[GitHub]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:GlaxoSmithKline]] 
 +  * [[Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership]] (CARGDP) 
 +  * [[Global Disability Innovation Hub]] 
 +  * [[Global Fund]] 
 +  * [[Global Health Workforce Alliance]] 
 +  * [[Gojo Industries]] 
 +  * [[Google]] 
 +  * [[Government of Catalonia]] 
 +  * [[Government of Flanders]] 
 +  * [[Grand Challenges Canada]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Green Cross Corporation]] (GSC) 
 +  * [[Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health]] 
 +  * [[HackerOne]] 
 +  * [[Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health]] 
 +  * [[HD Hudson]] 
 +  * [[Health Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Health Service Executive]] (HSE) 
 +  * [[Hearing Conservation Council]] (HCC) 
 +  * [[Hepatitis Fund]] 
 +  * [[Hilfsaktion Noma]] 
 +  * [[china:Hong Kong]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Hualan Biological Bacterin]] 
 +  * [[Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine]] 
 +  * [[Innovation Norway]] 
 +  * [[Instabug]] 
 +  * L'[[Institut de France]] 
 +  * [[Instituto Superiore di Sanità]] 
 +  * [[Interbrand]] 
 +  * [[International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness]] (IAPB) 
 +  * [[International AIDS Society]] (IAS) 
 +  * [[International Company for Medical Necessities]] 
 +  * [[International Computing Centre]] (ICC) 
 +  * [[International Development Association]] 
 +  * [[International Development Law Organization]] 
 +  * [[International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering]] (IFMBE) 
 +  * [[International Federation of Anthroposophic Medical Associations]] 
 +  * [[International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations]] 
 +  * [[International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations]] (IFPMA) 
 +  * [[International Foundation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies]] (IFOS) 
 +  * [[International Labour Organization]] (ILO) 
 +  * [[International League Against Epilepsy]] 
 +  * [[International Organization for Migration]] (IOM) 
 +  * [[International Society of Audiology]] 
 +  * [[International Telecommunication Union]] (ITU) 
 +  * [[International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease]] (IUATLD) 
 +  * [[International Vaccine Institute]] (IVI) 
 +  * [[International Water Association]] (IWA) 
 +  * [[INTOSAI Development Initiative]] (IDI) 
 +  * [[Islamic Development Bank]] 
 +  * [[Israeli Fund for UNICEF]] (IFU) 
 +  * [[Japan Hospital Association]] (JHA) 
 +  * [[Japanese Association of Psychiatric Hospitals]] 
 +  * [[Jhpiego]] 
 +  * [[medical_technology_companies:JMI Syringes & Medical Devices]] 
 +  * [[Johann Jacobs Foundation]] 
 +  * [[John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health]] 
 +  * [[Johns Hopkins University]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Johnson & Johnson]] 
 +  * [[Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS]] (UNAIDS) 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Kaketsuken]] 
 +  * [[Kanazawa University]] 
 +  * [[Kantar]] 
 +  * [[Karolinska Institute]] 
 +  * [[King Baudouin Foundation United States]] (KBFUS) 
 +  * [[King's College London]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Kitasato Daiichi Sankyo Vaccine Co.]] 
 +  * [[KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Korean Foundation for International Healthcare]] 
 +  * [[La Trobe University]] 
 +  * [[Laerdal Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Latter-Day Saints Charities]] 
 +  * [[Light for the World]] 
 +  * [[Lillian Lincoln Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Lions Club International Foundation]] 
 +  * [[London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine]] 
 +  * [[china:Macao]] 
 +  * [[Mada - Assistive Technology Center Qatar]] 
 +  * [[Madrilenian Health Service]] (SERMAS) 
 +  * [[Mahidol University]] 
 +  * [[March of Dimes Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Marius Nasta National Institute for Pneumology]] 
 +  * [[McKinsey & Company]] 
 +  * [[Mectizan Donation Programme]] (MDP) 
 +  * [[Medicines Development for Global Health]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:MedImmune]] 
 +  * [[Mental Health Commission of Canada]] (MHCC) 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Merck]] 
 +  * [[Micronutrient Initiative]] 
 +  * [[Microsoft]] 
 +  * [[Monash University]] 
 +  * [[Mundo Sano]] 
 +  * [[National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center]] 
 +  * [[National Philanthropic Trust]] 
 +  * [[National University of Ireland Galway]] 
 +  * [[National University of Singapore]] 
 +  * [[New Sunshine Charity Foundation]] 
 +  * [[New Venture Fund]] 
 +  * [[Nippon Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Norwegian Institute of Public Health]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Novartis]] 
 +  * [[Oil Search Foundation]] 
 +  * [[OPEC Fund for International Development]] (OFID) 
 +  * [[Open Society Foundations]] 
 +  * [[Open Society Institute]] 
 +  * [[Options Consultancy Services]] 
 +  * [[Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development]] (OECD) 
 +  * [[Organisation for the Prevention of Blindness]] 
 +  * [[P&P Patents and Technologies]] 
 +  * [[Pacific Islands Health Officers Association]] (PIHOA) 
 +  * [[Palestine]] 
 +  * [[PandemicTech]] 
 +  * [[Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health]] 
 +  * [[PAS Center]] 
 +  * [[PATH]] 
 +  * [[Paul G. Allen Family Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity]] 
 +  * [[Philippine Business for Social Progress]] 
 +  * [[Population Action International]] (PAI) 
 +  * [[Population Services International]] (PSI) 
 +  * [[Portuguese Institute of Sports and Youth]] (IPDJ) 
 +  * [[Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research]] (PIK) 
 +  * [[President and Fellows of Harvard College]] 
 +  * [[PricewaterhouseCoopers]] 
 +  * [[Program for Appropriate Technology in Health]] (PATH) 
 +  * [[Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development]] 
 +  * [[medical_technology_companies:Qiagen]] 
 +  * [[Quadram Institute]] 
 +  * [[RAND Corporation]] 
 +  * [[Reckitt Benckiser]] 
 +  * [[Regions for Health Network]] 
 +  * [[Rehabilitation International]] 
 +  * [[Research in Advanced Medical Informatics and Telematics]] (RAMIT) 
 +  * [[Research Institute for Microbial Diseases]] (RIMD) 
 +  * [[Research4Life]] 
 +  * [[Restream]] 
 +  * [[Robert Koch Institute]] 
 +  * [[Robert Wood Johnson Foundation]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Roche]] 
 +  * [[Rockefeller Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Romanian Angel Appeal]] 
 +  * [[Rotary International]] 
 +  * [[Rotary Japan]] 
 +  * [[Royal Tropical Institute]] 
 +  * [[Sabin Vaccine Institute]] (SVI) 
 +  * [[Safaricom Foundation]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Sandoz]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Sanofi-Aventis]] 
 +  * [[Sanofi Espoir Foundation]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Sanofi Pasteur]] 
 +  * [[Sasakawa Health Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Save the Children]] 
 +  * [[Save the Children UK]] 
 +  * [[SC Johnson]] 
 +  * [[Sclavo Vaccines Association]] 
 +  * Secretariat of the [[Pacific Community]] (SPC) 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Seqirus]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Shanghai Institute of Biological Products]] 
 +  * [[Sightsavers]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Sinovac]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:SK Bioscience]] 
 +  * [[Snyk]] 
 +  * [[South African Medical Research Council]] 
 +  * [[Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance]] (SEATCA) 
 +  * [[Southern African Development Community]] (SADC) Secretariat 
 +  * [[Sprinklr]] 
 +  * [[St. Jude Children's Research Hospital]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:St. Petersburg Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera]] (SPbSRIVS) 
 +  * [[Standard Chartered Bank]] 
 +  * [[Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Swiss Philanthropy Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Tableau Software]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:Takeda]] 
 +  * [[Task Force for Global Health]] 
 +  * [[Tetra Pak]] 
 +  * [[Thai Health Promotion Foundation]] 
 +  * [[TikTok]] 
 +  * [[True Colours Trust]] (TCT) 
 +  * [[Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York]] 
 +  * [[Twitter]] 
 +  * [[pharmaceutical_companies:UCB]] 
 +  * [[UN Women]] 
 +  * [[UNFCU Foundation]] 
 +  * [[UNICEF]] 
 +  * [[UNICEF USA]] 
 +  * [[Union Nationale des Caisses d'Assurance Maladie]] (UNCAM) 
 +  * [[Unitaid]] 
 +  * [[United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund]] (CERF) 
 +  * [[United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs]] (UNDESA) 
 +  * [[United Nations Development Programme]] (UNDP) 
 +  * [[United Nations Economic Commission for Europe]] (UNECE) 
 +  * [[United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]] (UNESCO) 
 +  * [[United Nations Environment Programme]] (UNEP) 
 +  * [[United Nations Foundation]] 
 +  * [[United Nations Fund for International Partnerships]] (UNFIP) 
 +  * [[United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees]] (UNHCR) 
 +  * [[United Nations Industrial Development Organization]] (UNIDO) 
 +  * [[United Nations Institute for Training and Research]] (UNITAR) 
 +  * [[United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali]] 
 +  * [[United Nations Office for Project Services]] (UNOPS) 
 +  * [[United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs]] (UNOCHA) 
 +  * [[United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime]] (UNODC) 
 +  * [[United Nations Partnership on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities]] (UNPRPD) 
 +  * [[United Nations Peace and Development Trust Fund]] (UNPDF) 
 +  * [[United Nations Population Fund]] (UNFPA) 
 +  * [[United Nations Postal Administration]] (UNPA) 
 +  * [[United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security]] (UNTFHS) 
 +  * [[United Nations University Institute for Global Health]] (UNU-IIGH) 
 +  * [[United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research]] (UNU-WIDER) 
 +  * [[University College London]] (UCL) 
 +  * [[University of Antwerp]] 
 +  * [[University of Bergen]] 
 +  * [[University of Birmingham]] 
 +  * [[University of Calgary]] Board of Governors 
 +  * [[University of Cape Town]] 
 +  * [[University of Copenhagen]] 
 +  * [[University of Edinburgh]] 
 +  * [[University of Exeter]] 
 +  * [[University of Lucerne]] 
 +  * [[University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna]] 
 +  * [[University of Newcastle]] 
 +  * [[University of Oxford]] 
 +  * [[University of York]] 
 +  * [[University Research Co.]] 
 +  * [[Uppsala Monitoring Centre]] 
 +  * [[Uppsala University]] 
 +  * [[Velux Stiftung]] 
 +  * [[Veolia Environment Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Vital Strategies]] 
 +  * [[Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam]] 
 +  * [[War Child Holland]] 
 +  * [[Wateraid America]] 
 +  * [[Wellcome Trust]] 
 +  * [[Wellspring Philanthropic Fund]] 
 +  * [[West African Health Organization]] (WAHO) 
 +  * [[WHO Foundation]] 
 +  * [[WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control]] (FCTC) 
 +  * [[World Bank]] 
 +  * [[World Diabetes Foundation]] 
 +  * [[World Food Programme]] (WFP) 
 +  * [[World Hepatitis Alliance]] 
 +  * [[World Meterological Organization]] (WMO) 
 +  * [[World Organization for Animal Health]] (OIE) 
 +  * [[World Vision International]] 
 +  * [[ZeShan Foundation]] 
 +  * [[Zhongshan Opthalmic Center]] 
 +  * [[Zoom Video Communications]] 
 + 
 +</WRAP> 
 + 
 +===== Needs to be organized ===== 
 + 
 +Everything below this line needs to be reorganized. FIXME
  
 +==== Link Dump ====
  
 +  * 2017 funding: https://canucklaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/WHO.Contributions2017Listings.pdf
 +  * 2018 funding: https://canucklaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/WHO.Contributions.Statement.2018.pdf
 ==== NGO Influence ==== ==== NGO Influence ====
 Paula Jardine described how the World Health Organisation’s original aim to tackle the multiple causes of health inequality and disease – poor sanitation, lack of clean water, poor food supply, malnutrition – was replaced by one overriding goal, that of universal vaccination. Today she tells how two ‘philanthropic’ foundations joined forces to promote this approach through a global programme that would ‘reverse the fortunes of the stagnant vaccine manufacturers’ and how countries came to be persuaded to indiscriminately target 90 per cent coverage rates for all vaccines on their national immunisation schedules. Paula Jardine described how the World Health Organisation’s original aim to tackle the multiple causes of health inequality and disease – poor sanitation, lack of clean water, poor food supply, malnutrition – was replaced by one overriding goal, that of universal vaccination. Today she tells how two ‘philanthropic’ foundations joined forces to promote this approach through a global programme that would ‘reverse the fortunes of the stagnant vaccine manufacturers’ and how countries came to be persuaded to indiscriminately target 90 per cent coverage rates for all vaccines on their national immunisation schedules.
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 It was not long after the retirement of Dr [[Halfdan Mahler]], WHO’s director general from 1973-1988, that Unicef, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] (RF) and other ‘partners’ launched the [[Children’s Vaccine Initiative]] (CVI) to encourage developing countries to self-finance their Child Survival Revolution vaccination programmes. This was a significant change of direction. It was not long after the retirement of Dr [[Halfdan Mahler]], WHO’s director general from 1973-1988, that Unicef, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] (RF) and other ‘partners’ launched the [[Children’s Vaccine Initiative]] (CVI) to encourage developing countries to self-finance their Child Survival Revolution vaccination programmes. This was a significant change of direction.
  
-It is more than 20 years since the RF and the [[:Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation]] (BMGF) joined forces, using the World Bank to create the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), now known as [[:GAVI]], The Vaccine Alliance. In the mid-1990s, with new leaders at the helm of both Unicef and the WHO, Dr [[Seth Berkley]], the RF’s associate director of health sciences, proposed to James Wolfensohn, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] trustee appointed to the Presidency of the [[:World Bank]] (WB) in 1995, that the WB and the RF stage ‘a coup’.+It is more than 20 years since the RF and the [[:Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation]] (BMGF) joined forces, using the [[:World Bank]] to create the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization [[:GAVI]], now known as [[:GAVI]], The Vaccine Alliance. In the mid-1990s, with new leaders at the helm of both Unicef and the WHO, Dr [[Seth Berkley]], the RF’s associate director of health sciences, proposed to James Wolfensohn, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] trustee appointed to the Presidency of the [[:World Bank]] (WB) in 1995, that the WB and the RF stage ‘a coup’.
  
 Berkley wanted to replace the CVI, which was failing to live up to the expectations of the vaccine manufacturers: ‘We will have an outside body that can bring in industry [which the World Health Organisation cannot legally do], do advocacy and build a truly international alliance’. Berkley wanted to replace the CVI, which was failing to live up to the expectations of the vaccine manufacturers: ‘We will have an outside body that can bring in industry [which the World Health Organisation cannot legally do], do advocacy and build a truly international alliance’.
  
-GAVI was officially created ‘to save children’s lives and protect people’s health through the widespread use of safe vaccines, with a particular focus on the needs of developing countries’. Structured as a public-private partnership, largely funded by BMGF and vaccine manufacturers, [[GAVI]]’s purpose was reverse the stagnation of the vaccine market, shaping it so more new and underused vaccines could be sold to the developing world.+GAVI was officially created ‘to save children’s lives and protect people’s health through the widespread use of safe vaccines, with a particular focus on the needs of developing countries’. Structured as a public-private partnership, largely funded by BMGF and vaccine manufacturers, [[:GAVI]]’s purpose was reverse the stagnation of the vaccine market, shaping it so more new and underused vaccines could be sold to the developing world.
  
 Until 2017, the WHO modelled vaccine impact estimates for GAVI. However as Gavi’s questions became more strategy and policy-oriented, with a need ‘to better account for uncertainty’ and to be able ‘to estimate the vaccine impact more accurately striving for the highest level of scientific rigour’,  GAVI and the Gates Foundation outsourced this modelling work to a consortium led by Professor [[:Neil Ferguson]] ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220209150757/https://www.conservativewoman.co.uk/how-big-pharma-sold-vaccines-to-the-world-part-2/)) Until 2017, the WHO modelled vaccine impact estimates for GAVI. However as Gavi’s questions became more strategy and policy-oriented, with a need ‘to better account for uncertainty’ and to be able ‘to estimate the vaccine impact more accurately striving for the highest level of scientific rigour’,  GAVI and the Gates Foundation outsourced this modelling work to a consortium led by Professor [[:Neil Ferguson]] ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220209150757/https://www.conservativewoman.co.uk/how-big-pharma-sold-vaccines-to-the-world-part-2/))
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 About 100 people traveling to a global AIDS conference in Australia were on board the Malaysia Airlines flight that crashed and killed 298 people in eastern Ukraine, reports the Sydney Morning Herald. About 100 people traveling to a global AIDS conference in Australia were on board the Malaysia Airlines flight that crashed and killed 298 people in eastern Ukraine, reports the Sydney Morning Herald.
  
-The researchers, health workers and activists were on their way to the International AIDS Conference in Melbourne. Among the victims planning to attend was Dutch national [[:Joep Lange]], a top AIDS researcher and former International AIDS Society president. Briton [[:Glenn Thomas]], a spokesperson for the World Health Organization and a former [[BBC]] journalist, was also on flight MH17.+The researchers, health workers and activists were on their way to the International AIDS Conference in Melbourne. Among the victims planning to attend was Dutch national [[:Joep Lange]], a top AIDS researcher and former International AIDS Society president. Briton [[:Glenn Thomas]], a spokesperson for the World Health Organization and a former [[:BBC]] journalist, was also on flight MH17.
  
 While the medical field mourns the lives of those killed, experts like Associate Professor [[Brian Owler]], federal president of the [[:Australian Medical Association]], also fear that breakthroughs in HIV/AIDS research will now be stalled. While the medical field mourns the lives of those killed, experts like Associate Professor [[Brian Owler]], federal president of the [[:Australian Medical Association]], also fear that breakthroughs in HIV/AIDS research will now be stalled.
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 Improving R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats through the development and utilisation of [[:vaccine]] platform technologies Improving R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats through the development and utilisation of [[:vaccine]] platform technologies
-Lead Institution: GlaxoSmithKline, LLC Dr Moncef Slaoui, Chairman of Vaccines, [[:GlaxoSmithKline]]+Lead Institution: GlaxoSmithKline, LLC Dr [[:Moncef Slaoui]], Chairman of Vaccines, [[:GlaxoSmithKline]]
  
-GSK proposes to create a dedicated Biopreparedness Organisation (BPO) to improve R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats that lack market incentives through the development and utilisation of vaccine platform technologies. The BPO will develop and manufacture vaccines to anticipate and improve preparedness for global health threats, including pandemics and epidemics.+GSK proposes to create a dedicated [[:Biopreparedness Organisation]] (BPO) to improve R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats that lack market incentives through the development and utilisation of vaccine platform technologies. The BPO will develop and manufacture vaccines to anticipate and improve preparedness for global health threats, including pandemics and epidemics.
  
 By continuously and proactively developing needed vaccines and shifting to crisis response as required, the BPO would provide a fast, flexible, predictable, and high‐quality approach to the challenges of global preparedness.  By continuously and proactively developing needed vaccines and shifting to crisis response as required, the BPO would provide a fast, flexible, predictable, and high‐quality approach to the challenges of global preparedness. 
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 Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General, said the decision by the World Health Assembly was historic in nature, vital in its mission, and represented a once-in-a-generation opportunity to strengthen the global health architecture to protect and promote the well-being of all people. Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General, said the decision by the World Health Assembly was historic in nature, vital in its mission, and represented a once-in-a-generation opportunity to strengthen the global health architecture to protect and promote the well-being of all people.
  
-“The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the many flaws in the global system to protect people from pandemics: the most vulnerable people going without vaccines; health workers without needed equipment to perform their life-saving work; and ‘me-first’ approaches that stymie the global solidarity needed to deal with a global threat,” Dr Tedros said.+“The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the many flaws in the global system to protect people from pandemics: the most vulnerable people going without vaccines; health workers without needed equipment to perform their life-saving work; and ‘me-first’ approaches that stymie the global solidarity needed to deal with a global threat,” Dr [[:Tedros]] said.
  
 “But at the same time, we have seen inspiring demonstrations of scientific and political collaboration, from the rapid development of vaccines, to today’s commitment by countries to negotiate a global accord that will help to keep future generations safer from the impacts of pandemics.” “But at the same time, we have seen inspiring demonstrations of scientific and political collaboration, from the rapid development of vaccines, to today’s commitment by countries to negotiate a global accord that will help to keep future generations safer from the impacts of pandemics.”
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 There is a better way. We are creating it together, for a healthy, inclusive, and harmonious world. #StopTheTreaty ((https://worldcouncilforhealth.org/news/2022/03/pandemic-treaty/45591/)) There is a better way. We are creating it together, for a healthy, inclusive, and harmonious world. #StopTheTreaty ((https://worldcouncilforhealth.org/news/2022/03/pandemic-treaty/45591/))
 +
 +==== WHO Digital Passport Agreement ====
 +
 +February 23, 2022 ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220418212026/https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/covid-19-who-commissions-t-systems-648634))
 +{{ ::who_t_mobile_partner_logo.png?400|}}
 +Checking Covid 19 certificates: World Health Organization selects T-Systems as industry partner
 +      * WHO facilitates 194 member states to introduce digital vaccination certificates
 +  *     Solution enables countries to check electronic evidence
 +  *     Gateway complies with European General Data Protection Regulation
 +
 +The World Health Organization (WHO) will make it easier for its member states to introduce digital vaccination certificates in the future. The WHO is setting up a gateway for this purpose. It enables QR codes on electronic vaccination certificates to be checked across national borders. It is intended to serve as a standard procedure for other vaccinations such as polio or yellow fever after COVID-19. The WHO has selected T-Systems as an industry partner to develop the vaccination validation services.
 +
 +Garrett Mehl, Unit Head, WHO Department of Digital Health and Innovation, said; "COVID-19 affects everyone. Countries will therefore only emerge from the pandemic together. Vaccination certificates that are tamper-proof and digitally verifiable build trust. WHO is therefore supporting member states in building national and regional trust networks and verification technology. The WHO's gateway service also serves as a bridge between regional systems. It can also be used as part of future vaccination campaigns and home-based records."
 +
 +Adel Al-Saleh, Member of the [[:Deutsche Telekom AG]] Board of Management and CEO T-Systems, explained: "Corona has a grip on the world. Digitization keeps the world running. Digital vaccination certificates like the EU's are key to this. We are pleased to be able to support the WHO in the fight against the pandemic. Health is a strategic growth area for T-Systems. Winning this contract underscores our commitment to the industry."
 +Data Transparency and General Data Protection Regulation
 +
 +WHO and T-Systems are focusing on transparency and data protection when building the gateway. The ongoing work on the software is public on the developer platform Github. All program codes can be viewed by the expert community there. Furthermore, the gateway complies to the strict privacy law of the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulation.
 +
 +The gateway will interact with other parts of the system already developed by WHO. These are also open source and with appropriate copyright licenses. A common security audit with penetration tests is part of the development. This will also give hints for regional and national setups to be followed by the implementers.
 +T-Systems industry partner in the pandemic
 +
 +For T-Systems, the WHO contract is familiar territory. The company had already developed the EU gateway for [[:vaccination certificates]] (DCC, [[:Digital Covid Certificate]]). More than 60 countries are connected to it today.
 +
 +T-Systems had previously set up the [[:European Federation Gateway Service]] (EFGS). The service ensures that member states' corona tracing apps work across borders. 
 +
 +Telekom and [[:SAP]] worked closely together on both EU projects. The companies are also industry partners for the German government's Corona warning app. With more than 43 million downloads, the German app is one of the most successful tracing apps in the world. With many additional functions, such as event check-ins or universal certificate storage, it has earned the reputation of being the Swiss army knife in the pandemic.((https://web.archive.org/web/20220418212026/https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/covid-19-who-commissions-t-systems-648634))
 +
 +About Deutsche Telekom: Deutsche Telekom company profile
 +About T-Systems: T-Systems company profile 
 +About Telekom Healthcare Solutions: Company Profile
 +World Health Organization: Email: smartvaccination@who.int
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