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world_health_organization [2022/04/12 20:14]
pamela [WHO Agreement - AUSTRALIA’S NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR HEALTH SECURITY 2019-2023]
world_health_organization [2022/08/18 03:46]
liam
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 ====== World Health Organization ====== ====== World Health Organization ======
  
-{{ :world-health-organization-vector-logo.png?200|}}+{{ ::whologo.png?200|}} 
 + 
 +The **World Health Organization (WHO)** is a supra-national organization based in [[switzerland:Geneva]], [[Switzerland]]. It is a specialized agency of the [[United Nations]] focused on international [[public health]].
  
 ===== History ===== ===== History =====
  
-Canada joined the WHO on August 29, 1946.((//ARCHIVED - World Health Organization.// (2005, April 8). Government of Canada. https://archive.is/nwz4S))+==== Formation and early days ==== 
 + 
 +[[Canada]] joined the WHO on August 29, 1946.((//ARCHIVED - World Health Organization.// (2005, April 8). Government of Canada. https://archive.is/nwz4S)) 
 + 
 +==== Public Health Emergencies of International Concern ==== 
 + 
 +On May 5, 2014, Director-General [[Margaret Chan]] declared the international spread of [[polio]] a [[Public Health Emergency of International Concern]] (PHEIC). The PHEIC declaration has remained in effect as of the most recent emergency committee meeting in June 2022.((//Public Health Emergency status.// Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Retrieved July 29, 2022, from https://web.archive.org/web/20220729220527/https://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-now/public-health-emergency-status/)) ((Poliovirus IHR Emergency Committee. (2022, June 24). //Statement of the Thirty-second Polio IHR Emergency Committee.// World Health Organization. https://web.archive.org/web/20220729220956/https://www.who.int/news/item/24-06-2022-statement-of-the-thirty-second-polio-ihr-emergency-committee)) 
 + 
 +===== Affiliations ===== 
 + 
 +==== Funding ==== 
 + 
 +The WHO is funded by national governments ("member states") and external donors including non-governmental organizations, corporations, individuals and philanthropic organizations.((//Our contributors.// World Health Organization. Retrieved July 21, 2022, from https://archive.ph/2NK2q)) Voluntary contributions are the primary source of funding for the WHO, along with an annual "assessed contribution" calculated based on the GDP of each member state. 
 + 
 +=== COVID-19 === 
 + 
 +  * [[ACT-Accelerator]] 
 +    * [[COVAX]] 
 +  * [[COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund]] 
 +  * [[Solidarity Trial]] 
 +  * [[UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force]] 
 + 
 +=== 2020-2021 === 
 + 
 +The [[COVID-19 pandemic]] was ongoing for the entirety of this fiscal year. 
 + 
 +^  2020-2021 Fiscal Year((//Our contributors.// World Health Organization. Retrieved July 21, 2022, from https://archive.ph/2NK2q))  ^^ 
 +^ Name  ^ Amount (USD)  ^ 
 +| [[Germany]]  | $1,268,000,000 
 +| [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]  | $751,000,000 
 +| [[United States of America]]  | $693,000,000 
 +| [[United Kingdom]]  | $487,000,000 
 +| [[European Commission]]  | $466,000,000 
 +| [[Gavi|Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance]]  | $432,000,000 
 +| [[Japan]]  | $218,000,000 
 +| [[Canada]]  | $212,000,000 
 +| [[Rotary International]]  | $174,000,000 
 +| [[COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund]]  | $171,000,000 
 +| [[China]]  | $168,000,000 
 +| [[Norway]]  | $165,000,000 
 +| [[Saudi Arabia]]  | $158,000,000 
 +| [[United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund]] (CERF)  | $152,000,000 
 +| [[France]]  | $141,000,000 
 +| [[World Bank]]  | $132,000,000 
 +| [[United Nations Development Programme]] (UNDP)  | $103,000,000 
 +| [[Australia]]  | $98,000,000 
 +| [[Sweden]]  | $96,000,000 
 +| [[Netherlands]]  | $93,000,000 
 + 
 +===== Needs to be organized ===== 
 + 
 +Everything below this line needs to be reorganized. FIXME
  
 +==== Link Dump ====
  
 +  * 2017 funding: https://canucklaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/WHO.Contributions2017Listings.pdf
 +  * 2018 funding: https://canucklaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/WHO.Contributions.Statement.2018.pdf
 ==== NGO Influence ==== ==== NGO Influence ====
 Paula Jardine described how the World Health Organisation’s original aim to tackle the multiple causes of health inequality and disease – poor sanitation, lack of clean water, poor food supply, malnutrition – was replaced by one overriding goal, that of universal vaccination. Today she tells how two ‘philanthropic’ foundations joined forces to promote this approach through a global programme that would ‘reverse the fortunes of the stagnant vaccine manufacturers’ and how countries came to be persuaded to indiscriminately target 90 per cent coverage rates for all vaccines on their national immunisation schedules. Paula Jardine described how the World Health Organisation’s original aim to tackle the multiple causes of health inequality and disease – poor sanitation, lack of clean water, poor food supply, malnutrition – was replaced by one overriding goal, that of universal vaccination. Today she tells how two ‘philanthropic’ foundations joined forces to promote this approach through a global programme that would ‘reverse the fortunes of the stagnant vaccine manufacturers’ and how countries came to be persuaded to indiscriminately target 90 per cent coverage rates for all vaccines on their national immunisation schedules.
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 It was not long after the retirement of Dr [[Halfdan Mahler]], WHO’s director general from 1973-1988, that Unicef, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] (RF) and other ‘partners’ launched the [[Children’s Vaccine Initiative]] (CVI) to encourage developing countries to self-finance their Child Survival Revolution vaccination programmes. This was a significant change of direction. It was not long after the retirement of Dr [[Halfdan Mahler]], WHO’s director general from 1973-1988, that Unicef, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] (RF) and other ‘partners’ launched the [[Children’s Vaccine Initiative]] (CVI) to encourage developing countries to self-finance their Child Survival Revolution vaccination programmes. This was a significant change of direction.
  
-It is more than 20 years since the RF and the [[:Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation]] (BMGF) joined forces, using the World Bank to create the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), now known as [[:GAVI]], The Vaccine Alliance. In the mid-1990s, with new leaders at the helm of both Unicef and the WHO, Dr [[Seth Berkley]], the RF’s associate director of health sciences, proposed to James Wolfensohn, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] trustee appointed to the Presidency of the [[:World Bank]] (WB) in 1995, that the WB and the RF stage ‘a coup’.+It is more than 20 years since the RF and the [[:Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation]] (BMGF) joined forces, using the [[:World Bank]] to create the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization [[:GAVI]], now known as [[:GAVI]], The Vaccine Alliance. In the mid-1990s, with new leaders at the helm of both Unicef and the WHO, Dr [[Seth Berkley]], the RF’s associate director of health sciences, proposed to James Wolfensohn, the [[:Rockefeller Foundation]] trustee appointed to the Presidency of the [[:World Bank]] (WB) in 1995, that the WB and the RF stage ‘a coup’.
  
 Berkley wanted to replace the CVI, which was failing to live up to the expectations of the vaccine manufacturers: ‘We will have an outside body that can bring in industry [which the World Health Organisation cannot legally do], do advocacy and build a truly international alliance’. Berkley wanted to replace the CVI, which was failing to live up to the expectations of the vaccine manufacturers: ‘We will have an outside body that can bring in industry [which the World Health Organisation cannot legally do], do advocacy and build a truly international alliance’.
  
-GAVI was officially created ‘to save children’s lives and protect people’s health through the widespread use of safe vaccines, with a particular focus on the needs of developing countries’. Structured as a public-private partnership, largely funded by BMGF and vaccine manufacturers, [[GAVI]]’s purpose was reverse the stagnation of the vaccine market, shaping it so more new and underused vaccines could be sold to the developing world.+GAVI was officially created ‘to save children’s lives and protect people’s health through the widespread use of safe vaccines, with a particular focus on the needs of developing countries’. Structured as a public-private partnership, largely funded by BMGF and vaccine manufacturers, [[:GAVI]]’s purpose was reverse the stagnation of the vaccine market, shaping it so more new and underused vaccines could be sold to the developing world.
  
 Until 2017, the WHO modelled vaccine impact estimates for GAVI. However as Gavi’s questions became more strategy and policy-oriented, with a need ‘to better account for uncertainty’ and to be able ‘to estimate the vaccine impact more accurately striving for the highest level of scientific rigour’,  GAVI and the Gates Foundation outsourced this modelling work to a consortium led by Professor [[:Neil Ferguson]] ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220209150757/https://www.conservativewoman.co.uk/how-big-pharma-sold-vaccines-to-the-world-part-2/)) Until 2017, the WHO modelled vaccine impact estimates for GAVI. However as Gavi’s questions became more strategy and policy-oriented, with a need ‘to better account for uncertainty’ and to be able ‘to estimate the vaccine impact more accurately striving for the highest level of scientific rigour’,  GAVI and the Gates Foundation outsourced this modelling work to a consortium led by Professor [[:Neil Ferguson]] ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220209150757/https://www.conservativewoman.co.uk/how-big-pharma-sold-vaccines-to-the-world-part-2/))
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 About 100 people traveling to a global AIDS conference in Australia were on board the Malaysia Airlines flight that crashed and killed 298 people in eastern Ukraine, reports the Sydney Morning Herald. About 100 people traveling to a global AIDS conference in Australia were on board the Malaysia Airlines flight that crashed and killed 298 people in eastern Ukraine, reports the Sydney Morning Herald.
  
-The researchers, health workers and activists were on their way to the International AIDS Conference in Melbourne. Among the victims planning to attend was Dutch national [[:Joep Lange]], a top AIDS researcher and former International AIDS Society president. Briton [[:Glenn Thomas]], a spokesperson for the World Health Organization and a former [[BBC]] journalist, was also on flight MH17.+The researchers, health workers and activists were on their way to the International AIDS Conference in Melbourne. Among the victims planning to attend was Dutch national [[:Joep Lange]], a top AIDS researcher and former International AIDS Society president. Briton [[:Glenn Thomas]], a spokesperson for the World Health Organization and a former [[:BBC]] journalist, was also on flight MH17.
  
 While the medical field mourns the lives of those killed, experts like Associate Professor [[Brian Owler]], federal president of the [[:Australian Medical Association]], also fear that breakthroughs in HIV/AIDS research will now be stalled. While the medical field mourns the lives of those killed, experts like Associate Professor [[Brian Owler]], federal president of the [[:Australian Medical Association]], also fear that breakthroughs in HIV/AIDS research will now be stalled.
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 Improving R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats through the development and utilisation of [[:vaccine]] platform technologies Improving R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats through the development and utilisation of [[:vaccine]] platform technologies
-Lead Institution: GlaxoSmithKline, LLC Dr Moncef Slaoui, Chairman of Vaccines, [[:GlaxoSmithKline]]+Lead Institution: GlaxoSmithKline, LLC Dr [[:Moncef Slaoui]], Chairman of Vaccines, [[:GlaxoSmithKline]]
  
-GSK proposes to create a dedicated Biopreparedness Organisation (BPO) to improve R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats that lack market incentives through the development and utilisation of vaccine platform technologies. The BPO will develop and manufacture vaccines to anticipate and improve preparedness for global health threats, including pandemics and epidemics.+GSK proposes to create a dedicated [[:Biopreparedness Organisation]] (BPO) to improve R&D readiness for priority infectious disease threats that lack market incentives through the development and utilisation of vaccine platform technologies. The BPO will develop and manufacture vaccines to anticipate and improve preparedness for global health threats, including pandemics and epidemics.
  
 By continuously and proactively developing needed vaccines and shifting to crisis response as required, the BPO would provide a fast, flexible, predictable, and high‐quality approach to the challenges of global preparedness.  By continuously and proactively developing needed vaccines and shifting to crisis response as required, the BPO would provide a fast, flexible, predictable, and high‐quality approach to the challenges of global preparedness. 
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 Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General, said the decision by the World Health Assembly was historic in nature, vital in its mission, and represented a once-in-a-generation opportunity to strengthen the global health architecture to protect and promote the well-being of all people. Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General, said the decision by the World Health Assembly was historic in nature, vital in its mission, and represented a once-in-a-generation opportunity to strengthen the global health architecture to protect and promote the well-being of all people.
  
-“The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the many flaws in the global system to protect people from pandemics: the most vulnerable people going without vaccines; health workers without needed equipment to perform their life-saving work; and ‘me-first’ approaches that stymie the global solidarity needed to deal with a global threat,” Dr Tedros said.+“The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the many flaws in the global system to protect people from pandemics: the most vulnerable people going without vaccines; health workers without needed equipment to perform their life-saving work; and ‘me-first’ approaches that stymie the global solidarity needed to deal with a global threat,” Dr [[:Tedros]] said.
  
 “But at the same time, we have seen inspiring demonstrations of scientific and political collaboration, from the rapid development of vaccines, to today’s commitment by countries to negotiate a global accord that will help to keep future generations safer from the impacts of pandemics.” “But at the same time, we have seen inspiring demonstrations of scientific and political collaboration, from the rapid development of vaccines, to today’s commitment by countries to negotiate a global accord that will help to keep future generations safer from the impacts of pandemics.”
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 There is a better way. We are creating it together, for a healthy, inclusive, and harmonious world. #StopTheTreaty ((https://worldcouncilforhealth.org/news/2022/03/pandemic-treaty/45591/)) There is a better way. We are creating it together, for a healthy, inclusive, and harmonious world. #StopTheTreaty ((https://worldcouncilforhealth.org/news/2022/03/pandemic-treaty/45591/))
 +
 +==== WHO Digital Passport Agreement ====
 +
 +February 23, 2022 ((https://web.archive.org/web/20220418212026/https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/covid-19-who-commissions-t-systems-648634))
 +{{ ::who_t_mobile_partner_logo.png?400|}}
 +Checking Covid 19 certificates: World Health Organization selects T-Systems as industry partner
 +      * WHO facilitates 194 member states to introduce digital vaccination certificates
 +  *     Solution enables countries to check electronic evidence
 +  *     Gateway complies with European General Data Protection Regulation
 +
 +The World Health Organization (WHO) will make it easier for its member states to introduce digital vaccination certificates in the future. The WHO is setting up a gateway for this purpose. It enables QR codes on electronic vaccination certificates to be checked across national borders. It is intended to serve as a standard procedure for other vaccinations such as polio or yellow fever after COVID-19. The WHO has selected T-Systems as an industry partner to develop the vaccination validation services.
 +
 +Garrett Mehl, Unit Head, WHO Department of Digital Health and Innovation, said; "COVID-19 affects everyone. Countries will therefore only emerge from the pandemic together. Vaccination certificates that are tamper-proof and digitally verifiable build trust. WHO is therefore supporting member states in building national and regional trust networks and verification technology. The WHO's gateway service also serves as a bridge between regional systems. It can also be used as part of future vaccination campaigns and home-based records."
 +
 +Adel Al-Saleh, Member of the [[:Deutsche Telekom AG]] Board of Management and CEO T-Systems, explained: "Corona has a grip on the world. Digitization keeps the world running. Digital vaccination certificates like the EU's are key to this. We are pleased to be able to support the WHO in the fight against the pandemic. Health is a strategic growth area for T-Systems. Winning this contract underscores our commitment to the industry."
 +Data Transparency and General Data Protection Regulation
 +
 +WHO and T-Systems are focusing on transparency and data protection when building the gateway. The ongoing work on the software is public on the developer platform Github. All program codes can be viewed by the expert community there. Furthermore, the gateway complies to the strict privacy law of the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulation.
 +
 +The gateway will interact with other parts of the system already developed by WHO. These are also open source and with appropriate copyright licenses. A common security audit with penetration tests is part of the development. This will also give hints for regional and national setups to be followed by the implementers.
 +T-Systems industry partner in the pandemic
 +
 +For T-Systems, the WHO contract is familiar territory. The company had already developed the EU gateway for [[:vaccination certificates]] (DCC, [[:Digital Covid Certificate]]). More than 60 countries are connected to it today.
 +
 +T-Systems had previously set up the [[:European Federation Gateway Service]] (EFGS). The service ensures that member states' corona tracing apps work across borders. 
 +
 +Telekom and [[:SAP]] worked closely together on both EU projects. The companies are also industry partners for the German government's Corona warning app. With more than 43 million downloads, the German app is one of the most successful tracing apps in the world. With many additional functions, such as event check-ins or universal certificate storage, it has earned the reputation of being the Swiss army knife in the pandemic.((https://web.archive.org/web/20220418212026/https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/covid-19-who-commissions-t-systems-648634))
 +
 +About Deutsche Telekom: Deutsche Telekom company profile
 +About T-Systems: T-Systems company profile 
 +About Telekom Healthcare Solutions: Company Profile
 +World Health Organization: Email: smartvaccination@who.int
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